PLATES XLII. AND XLIII. SAILING AND CRUISING BOAT "DELTA."

The many inquiries concerning sneakboxes, tuckups, small sharpies and similar craft show that there is a general demand for small sailing craft of good design, both for ordinary pleasure sailing and for more or less extended cruising. This demand may be largely ascribed to the influence of canoeing, as it has arisen since the latter sport became generally popular in this country. There are many to-day who have given up the canoe after a fair trial, and many more who are ready to do so; but this is not on account of any defect in the boat. The general popularity of canoeing, together with the moderate expense, leads many novices into it, not because it is just the form of sailing which they prefer, but because they know of no other which would suit them better. After a time some find the canoe too small to carry a party of friends, others wish a boat exclusively for sailing in open waters, and others, again, wish to carry an amount of stores, guns and tackle, for which the canoe never was intended. This proves nothing against the canoe, a boat adapted to wider range of use than any other pleasure craft; but when a man gets to this stage and begins to long for a sneakbox or a sharpie, he is better out of a canoe than in it, though there is no reason why the bond between him and the man who still swears by a 15x30 canoe should be severed; they are both cruisers and sailors at bottom, though their craft may vary.

The boat shown in the accompanying plans, the Delta, was planned by Dr. H. G. Piffard, former owner of the sneakbox Bojum (Pl. XXXVIII.),and is an attempt to combine the best qualities of several boats. The bottom of the sneakbox is preserved, but with the bows of the ordinary rowboat, as well as a higher side, while the overhang and rudder of the sharpie are added. The boat was intended for pleasure sailing about Greenwich, Conn., to carry half a dozen comfortably, and yet to be easily handled by one. While a fair amount of speed was looked for, the boat was not intended for racing, and if wanted for such a purpose, to carry all the sail the model is capable of with a crew on the gunwale, a heavier construction would be advisable. For all ordinary work the boat has proved amply strong, and the construction here given can be followed in all details.

The question has often been asked, "Why not put a boat bow on a sneakbox?" and for all save hunting purposes there seems to be no reason why it should not be done, in fact this boat is a practical answer to the question. The Delta was built in the spring of 1886, and thus far has given perfect satisfaction. In order to meet the wants of the single-hand cruisers the drawing is given with two scales, by which a boat of 13 ft. extreme length may be built, as well as the original length of 18 ft. The former should make a remarkably good little craft, larger, faster, abler and far handsomer than the sneakbox, and little more costly. The bow is not so well adapted for beaching, and the boat is too large and high to serve as a blind or shooting battery, as a sneakbox often does, but as far as sailing and general cruising are concerned the odds are all in favor of the Delta as compared with any form of "box." The dimensions of the two sizes are:

					18 ft. Boat.		13 ft. Boat.

Length over all				18 ft.			13 ft.
	1.w.l				16 ft.			11 ft.  6-3/4 in.
Beam, extreme				 5 ft. 4 in.		 3 ft. 10-1/2 in.
Draft, about				      8 in.		       6 in.
Depth at gunwale. amidship 		1 ft.  5-1/2 in.	 1 ft.  5/8 in.
Sheer. bow				      7 in.		       5-1/8 in.
	 stern				      3 in.		       2-1/8 in.
Crown of deck				      2 in.		       2  in.
Fore side of stem to-
	Trunk, fore end of slot		 4 ft. 9 in.		 3 ft. 5-1/4 in.
	      after end of slot		 9 ft. 6 in.		 6 ft. 10-1/2 in.
	 Well, fore end of slot		 8 ft. 9 in.		 6 ft. 4 in.
	      after end of slot		15 ft. 9 in.		11 ft. 4-5/8 in.
	 Rudderstock, center		16 ft. 8 in.	 	12 ft. 1/2 in.
	 Rowlocks, center		11 ft. 7 in.	 	 8 ft. 4-1/2 in.
Width of well				 4 ft.			 2 ft. 10-1/2 in.
Distance of stations apart		 2 ft.			 1 ft. 5-1/4 in.
waterlines apart.   			      3 in.		      2-3/16 in.

Table of Offsets - Eighteen-Foot Boat
StationsHeightsHalf-Breadths
DeckKeelDeckNo. 1No. 2No. 3No. 4Keel
02  04....0101 ................
11  10....1  15112 97825712
21  75....1  112 1  861  721  45 1  0516
31  62....2  47 2  322  171  114 1  6623
41  54....2  74 2  642  512  31  11 25
51  54....2  8 2  672  572  36 2  0026
61  56032  7 2  562  452  16 1  9327
71  64242  45 2  21  1171  7273 27
81  7391  11 1  36............27
91  841  84........ ............26

Table of Offsets - Thirteen-Foot Boat
StationsHeightsHalf-Breadths
DeckKeelDeckNo. 1No. 2No. 3No. 4Keel
01  56....0101 ................
11  36....96 82726431
21  21....1  46 1  31  161       9212
31  11....1  87 1  761  651  5 1  1516
41  05....1  105 1  101  91  741  45 17
51  05....1  112 1  1031  941  8 1  532
61  06011  103 1  941  841  65 1  342
71  12171  85 1  71  521  1753 2
81  17641  45 113............17
91  261  26........ ............16

The scantling for the larger boat will be. Keel of oak, 7/8 in. thick and 5 in. wide; stem of hackmatack or oak knee, sided 2 in.; sternpost, oak, lx2 in.; scag, yellow pine 1 in. thick, planking, cedar, 5/8 in., the garboard 3/4 in.; deck, cedar or white pine, 1/2 in. scant; coaming, oak, 3/8 in.; deck beams, 1-1/4x1-1/4; ribs, lx1/2 in., spaced 9 in. A clamp, 2x5/8 in. at middle, tapering to 1-1/2x3/8 in. at ends, will be run inside from the bow to the bulkhead, being riveted through the ribs and upper streak. It should be set so far below the gunwale as to allow the deck beams to rest on it. A solid chock should be fitted in place of a breast-hook at the bow, below the deck and on top of these clamps. The after bulkhead will be of 1 in. pine or spruce. The well for the centerboard will have headledges, b b, of oak, lx2 in., with bed pieces, also of oak, 3-1/2 in. deep and 1-1/4 in. thick, the sides above being of 1 in. clear white pine.

The keel is 7/8 in. extreme thickness, but it maybe tapered, beginning at station 5 and reducing it to 1/2 in. at the after end, so that it will bend more easily. It will be thicker than the garboards, but when the planking is completed the bottom will be planed down on the edges to meet the latter.

The smaller boat will have keel 3/4 in. thick; stem, sided 1-1/2 in.; ribs, 3/4x3/8 in., spaced 8 in.; planking, 1/2 in.; deck, 3/8 in.; coaming, 3/8 in. scant; deck beams, 1 in. wide and 1-1/4 in. deep; headledges, 1-1/2x3/4 in.; bedpieces, 3x l-1/4 in. In construction, the keel is first laid on the stocks and the stem is got out and fitted. A mould is made for every station, that for station 8 being carefully beveled and fitted, as it is to remain permanently as a bulkhead. A mould is now made of common stuff to fit the upward curve of the keel from station 5 to the stern, and is set up on the stocks, the keel being shored down into place. The moulds, eight in number, including the bulkhead, will then be set in place. Only half as many moulds would be used by a regular builder, but the amateur will find the work easier if he has plenty of moulds. The shape of the stern is given by two pieces, f f, termed quarter timbers. These need be only of 1 in. pine or spruce. They must be marked out from the lines on the floor and carefully beveled. They are screwed to the keel and also to the bulkhead, being let into the latter.

A number of ribbands of oak or yellow pine, with clear straight grain, are now run around the moulds, about six on each side. The ribs are now planed up, steamed, and bent into place, being held by a nail partly driven through each ribband. Each rib is long enough to lap the full width of the garboard, the two that go to make a frame lying side by side where they cross. When the ribs are all in and fastened permanently to the keel and temporarily to the ribbands, the lower ribband on each side is taken off, the garboard got out and set. The next ribband is then removed and another plank is set and so until the boat is planked. The piece a is of oak, 1-1/4 in. thick, set down on the keel to stiffen it and form a mast step. It should be put in place before the ribs go in, the latter being jogged in and well fastened to it. The clamps should be put in before the frame is taken from the stocks, the deck beams being also fitted. The slot for the trunk should never be cut until the last thing, but when the planking is completed, two mortises are cut for the headledges, the two bed pieces are got out and fastened to them with through rivets, the boat is taken from the stocks and the trunk put in, screws being driven through the keel into the bed pieces. The sides of white pine are then put on, after which the deck beams, previously fitted, will be fastened. They should run across the trunk, being jogged down so that the deck will close the top of the trunk tightly. The mortise for the sternpost is next cut, the post put in and fastened to the bulkhead, then the scag is cut and fitted, being fastened through with screws from inside of keel. To make a tight casing for the rudderstock, a piece of pine 3-1/2 in. square, e, is fitted to the keel, reaching to under side of deck, being set in whitelead and well screwed to make a watertight joint. A hole is then bored for the iron rudderstock. Ledges about 3 in. deep run across the boat to carry the floor boards, and also to stiffen the bottom, for which purpose they should be well riveted through the planking.

The decks are supported along the well by knees c c c, three or more on each side, forming lockers. One or more of these may be fitted with doors as shown. After the boat is taken from the stocks the slot for the center-board is cut in the keel. The rudderstock is shown in detail, the shank of round iron, 7/8 in. with two flat pieces each 1x1/4 in. welded to it, the head being squared for a tiller. The blade of the rudder is of oak, l in. thick where it is let into the stock, but tapering to a line edge forward and aft. On deck there should be a brass plate, while a pin through the stock prevents it from falling. A strip of iron 3/4x1/4 may be run from the centerboard slot aft to the rudder, with a pin up into the center of the latter, as shown. This will serve the double purpose of stiffening and protecting the scag and rudder, and also of preventing the fouling of the latter by weeds and lines. The deck should be covered with light drill, 6oz. laid in white paint. All fastenings should be of copper except where brass screws are used. The sizes given for planking and decks are for planed stuff, and in all cases are thick enough to allow of planing off after caulking, which will always be necessary. The board shown is large enough for all sailing, and in the smaller boat, if room is an object, it might be shortened by 6 in. on the after end. The size of cockpit may be varied according to the boat; for a large party it may run further forward on each side of the trunk, but for rough water and cruising the size shown will answer very well. The mortise for the mast step may be cut in the piece a. The forward deck should be strengthened by a piece 3/4in thick and 6 to 7 in. wide, running from stem to trunk under the deck beams and riveted through beams and deck plank. Where the mast goes through the space between, the two should be filled in solid.

The sail shown in Plate XLI. is well adapted for the smaller boat and will be none too large, but in Plate XLIII. two other suitable rigs are shown, the scales given being adaptable to either size of boat. Delta was rigged with a single large lug of about 150 ft., which she carried easily without ballast in ordinary weather. The lug was cut with very little round to the head and the yard was straight. There were no battens in the sail, but two rows of reef points. The sheet was fast to an eye bolt on the quarter and led through a block on the boom, and then under a thumb cleat on the side of coaming, or through a snatch block on the floor of the boat. Under this rig the boat handles very satisfactorily for singlehand sailing, but some ballast would be needed if no passengers were carried. The dotted lines show the size of a cat rig, the mast being stepped further forward. The lug is the better of the two, but is more difficult to rig, and many will prefer the cat simply because they are used to it and unfamiliar with the other. The main and mizen rig in the second drawing is smaller, and better adapted for cruising and sailing alone. The details of the rigging are the same as in the preceding sail plan. The sails here shown are of the form usually carried on canoes and small boats, but a flatter and more effective sail can be had by making the yard longer, carrying it down to the batten, rounding the head much more than is shown, and throwing a little more of the yard forward of the mast, as in the Cruiser's sail. Such sails require to be carefully rigged. and more or less trial is always needed to find the best position for halliard and tack on the spars, but when once complete they are good enough to fully repay the trouble. The dimensions of the single lug are as follows, the mast in the plan being shown forward of its proper position, which is given in the table:

					18 ft. BOAT.		13 ft. BOAT.

Mast, from stem				 4 ft.			 2 ft.  9 in.
	above deck			15 ft.			10 ft. 10 in.
	diameter at deck		      3-1/4 in.		       2-3/4 in.
Boom					14 ft. 9 in.    	10 ft.  6 in.
	diameter.   		 	      2 in.        	       1-3/4 in.
Yard					10 ft. 6 in.    	 7 ft.  7 in.
	diameter.			      1-1/4 in.      	       1-1/8 in.
Foot of sail				14 ft.       		10 ft. 1 in.
Luff					 9 ft. 6 in.		 6 ft. 10-1/2 in.
Head					 9 ft. 9 in. 	 	 7 ft.
Leech					19 ft.       		13 ft. 8 in.
Tack to peak				18 ft. 6 in.		13 ft. 4 in.
Clew to throat 				16 ft. 6 in.    		11 ft. 11 in.
Area					155 sq.  ft.		80 sq.  ft.

The dimensions of the main and mizen rigs are.
					18 ft. BOAT.			13 ft. BOAT.
				Main.		Mizen.		Main.		Mizen.
				Ft. In.		Ft. In.		Ft. In.		Ft. In.
Main,fromstom      	 	 2  00		17  00	 	 1  06		12  03
	above deck		12  06	 	 7  00	 	 9  00	  	 5  00
	diameter at deck	 0  03	 	 0  02	  	 0  02-1/4	 0  01-1/2
Boomkin, outboard				 1  09			 	 1  03
Boom				12  02	 	 6  06	 	 8  10	 	 4  09
	Diameter		 0  01-3/4	 0  01-1/8	 0  01-1/4	 0  01
Yard				 9  06	 	 5  03	 	 7  00	 	 3  10
    diameter		 	 0  01-1/4	 0  01	 	 0  01-1/8	 0  00-7/8
Foot				11  06	 	 6  00	 	 8  04	 	 4  04
Luff				 6  06	 	 3  06	 	 4  09	 	 2  07
Head				 9  00	 	 4  09	 	 6  06	 	 3  06
Leech				14  06	 	 7  07		10  06	 	 5  06
Tack to peak			15  00	 	 8  00		10  10	 	 5  09
Clew to throat			12  06	 	 6  06	 	 9  00	 	 4  09
Area				90 sq. ft.	26 sq. ft.	49 sq. ft.	14 sq. ft.

The drawings show the size of sails when stretched on the spars after a little use. They must be cut a little smaller than this in making, and after a season they will have stretched to the full size of the spars shown.


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