PLATE XXXVIII. - BARNEGAT SNEAKBOX.
This curious boat is used on Barnegat Bay, on the New Jersey coast, for duck shooting and sailing. Being low on the water, it is easily converted into a blind, by covering with brush, and its flat, spoon-shaped bottom allows it to be drawn up easily on the mud or sand. The usual size is 12x4 ft., and the rig is a small spritsail. Most of the Barnegat boats are fitted with a dagger centerboard, sliding in a small trunk from which it may be drawn entirely. The boat shown is used only for sailing, and is fitted with a board of the usual form, hung on a bolt. The rig is also different. The dimensions of the boat are: Length over all. 16 ft.; beam, 4 ft. 11 in.; depth amidships, 12 in.; draft, 8 in.; keel, of oak, 5 in. wide; frames 1-1/4 in., sided, 1 in. moulded, spaced 13 in.; planking (carvel build), 9/16 in.; round of deck, 8 in.; deck planking, 3/8 in.; coaming 2 in. high at sides; width of rudder, 24 in.; mast at deck, 3 in.
The sail is a balance lug, hung from a single halliard. The yard and boom are each held in to the mast by parrels. There is no tack to hold the boom down, as is usual in these sails, but a line is made fast to the free end of boom, leading to the deck near the mast, where it is belayed, thus preventing the sail from running forward, and answering the purpose of a tackline. The dimensions of the sail are: Foot, 15 ft. 6 in.; head, 9 ft. 8 in.; luff, 9 ft. 7 in.; leach, 20 ft.; clew to throat, 16 ft. 10 in. Area, 160 sq. ft.
In anchoring the boat the cable must be rigged so as to be reached from the well, as in the smaller sizes a man cannot walk out on deck to the bow.
PLATE: XXXIX.-THE BARNEGAT CRUISER.
The prominence given to cruising of late years by the increased growth and importance of canoeing has brought many into the ranks who do not care for so small a boat as the canoe, but who wish a strong, roomy and serviceable boat, either for cruising or for general sailing, alone or with one or two friends. The canoe is really a boat for one person, and must be capable of being paddled, sailed and handled on shore by one; but where these conditions do not prevail a different type of boat may often be used to advantage. In places where the boat must lie afloat and a fine canoe would be damaged; in open waters where there is no occasion to haul up the boat, and where transit by rail is not an object; in shooting trips and other cruises where several persons, and perhaps a dog, must be carried, the boat shown in Plate XXXIX. will answer admirably. This boat, named by its designer the "Barnegat Cruiser," is an adaptation of the common sneakbox, found all along the New Jersey coast (see Plate XXXVIII., p.215) to the wants of cruisers. Mr. N. H. Bishop, so widely known as a canoeist, cruiser, traveler and an able writer in behalf of cruising, has for some time past made a special study of the sneakbox at his home at Toms River, N. J., the home of the craft. He has built and tried boxes of all kinds, has experimented largely with sails, and has expended considerable study on the details of fittings. The boat shown in Plate XXXIX. is a 14-ft. cruiser of the new model, a number of which are now building at Toms River under Mr. Bishop's personal supervision, for members of the American Single-hand Cruising Club. The lines shown were taken from "Seneca's" boat, described in the Forest and Stream. The dimensions are:Length 14 ft. 0 in. Beam 4 ft. 0 in. Depth at gunwale 1 ft. 1 in. Sheer, bow 8-1/2 in. Sheer. Stern 4 in. Draft, loaded 6 in. Freeboard 7 in. Crown of deck 8 in. Fore side of stern to- Mast tube 2 ft. 9-1/2 in. Trunk, fore end. 3 ft. 1 in. Trunk, after end 6 ft. 3 in. Well, fore end 5 ft. 10 in. Well, after end 11 ft. 0 in. Rowlocks 9 ft. 1 in. Bulkhead 12 ft. 0 in. Diameter of mast tube 3 in.
In shape the new cruiser resembles the old sneakboxes, but is deeper than most of the latter. The board is of steel plate 1/4 in. thick, pivoted at the fore end in place of the dagger boards once common in these craft. The construction is quite peculiar. Both keel and planking are of white cedar 5/8 in. thick. The keel is flat, in one piece, its half breadth being shown by the dotted lines in the half-breadth and body plans. There is no stem piece, but the keel is bent up, forming the stem. The garboards, also shown by the dotted lines, end along the gunwale, instead of in a rabbet in the stern, as in most boats. In building, after the keel is fastened to the stocks, with the proper curve, the stern and moulds are put in place, Then two pieces, A A, are sawn out of 1 in. board, the shape being taken from the deck line on the floor, These pieces are screwed in place, at the height of the lower side of the deck, and remain permanently in the boat. The ribs are now bent and fitted in place, nailed to the keel, and the upper ends of the forward ones are nailed to the pieces A A. As the planks are put on, they also are fastened at the fore end to A A. The correct breadths of each plank may be taken from the body plan on every frame. The frames are of sawn cedar 1-1/8x1-1/8 in. and spaced 10 in. The trunk is of pine, deck and ceiling 1/2 in. cedar. The rowlocks are of brass, fitted to fold down. A very peculiar feature of the new boat is a high washboard all around the gunwale, to keep off water and to serve as a receptacle for odd articles on deck. Forward the two sides are bolted to a chock of wood or an iron-casting of the shape shown, the top making a fair leader for the cable. Along the sides the washboards are held down by an iron catch, a b. The piece, b, made of band iron, 3/4x1/8 in. is screwed to the deck and a notch in the lower side of the washboard hooks under it. The piece a is pivoted to b, serving, when closed, as a stop to keep the board in place. To remove the washboard, a is turned to one side, when the board may be slipped free of b. Aft the washboard is fitted with two battens, sliding into square staples in the stern.
A smaller boat of the same kind just built is 13 ft. 5 in. long. The centerboard, of galvanized iron, is placed 3 ft. 3 in. from stern, the trunk being 3 ft. 1-1/2 in. long on bottom. The rig of the larger boat is a balance lug of the following shape:
It has battens and is hung in the ordinary manner. A rudder may be used, but the boat is often steered with an oar.
The following description of the outfit of one of these boats is given by "Seneca":
Beginning at the stem, she is decked over 5 ft. 10 in. The centerboard trunk begins 3 ft. 1 in. from the bow and ends at the fore end of the cockpit. Between the stem and the centerboard trunk are an extra coil of rope and an extra coffee pot and tin pail. A shrimp net with handle and a jointed fishing rod also occupy part of this space, and extend part way alongside the starboard side of the trunk aft. To the starboard of the trunk, in easy reach of the cockpit, are two small oil stoves and a can of kerosene oil, also a brass rod which is used to shove down the centerboard. On the port side of the trunk are the clothes bag and the granite-ware cooking utensils, kettle, coffee pot, three cups and three plates. The cockpit tent is folded up on the floor close to the after end of the trunk, and next comes a tin watertight box with the rubber bag of bedding atop of it, which is used as a seat when rowing.
The box is divided into compartments. No. 1 compartment contains awl, gimlet, screwdriver, nippers, oyster knife, cartridge loading tools, brass screws, screweyes, brass and galvanized blocks, safety-pin hooks, nails, rings, spare cleats, tacks, etc. No. 2 compartment contains unloaded shells. No. 3, loaded shells. No. 4, fishing tackle of all kinds, small mirror, comb, thread and needles. No. 5 contains gun-cleaning tips, waste, rags and a bottle of gun oil. In the cover of the box a jointed cleaning rod is held by springs. In the rubber bedding bag are mosquito netting, two blankets, a quilt and a thick carriage robe, and perhaps an extra flannel shirt or two that can't be crowded into the clothes bag. Between this seat and the after end of the cockpit is a clear space in which to "work ship." The after deck is 3 ft. long, covering a 2 ft. cuddy and a foot of room below decks. In the latter space are stowed the two water jugs, a rubber inflatable mattress, a rubber coat and a macintosh-covered basket containing bread, pilot biscuit, cheese, etc. In the stern cuddy are canned soups, canned plum puddings, sardines, and other tinned edibles, potatoes or other vegetables in water-proof muslin bags; a candle lantern, riding light, and odds and ends of all descriptions. Underneath the side decks on either side of the cockpit are little shelves between every two deck braces. There are seven of these shelves on each side, which, numbered from the stern, are occupied as follows:Port. Starboard. 1 Bag of shot Bag of shot. Can of powder Revolver. 2 Soap, sponge Pipe, tobacco. Whisk broom Box of matches. Scrub brush 3 Monkey wrench Hatch padlock. Can opener, big Case-knife, fork. Spoon, pliers Three teaspoons. 4 Coffee can Sugar can. Salt can Condensed milk. Pepper box Bottle chow-chow. 5 Generally vacant, the bedding bag preventing easy access. 6 Spare rowlocks Hatchet. 6 Spare blocks. Candles. 7 Towels Grub in general. Slippers.
The gun lies on the floor under starboard side deck and the skipper's artificial aids to walking under port side deck. On deck, between stem and mast, 2 ft. 9 in., is coiled the anchor cable, with Chester folding 12lb. anchor. On side decks, where the 6 in. high washboard prevents their rolling off, are the oars, boathook, mast and sail when not in use. A stern cable is coiled on after deck.
In sailing a long-handle tiller is used, so that steering can be done from the cockpit, but under certain conditions the skipper steers from the after deck, with the tiller put on the rudder head "stern foremost," the handle sticking out astern like a boomkin. The cruising sail generally used is a spritsail, which can be stowed below, the hatches put on and locked, and the cruiser left at any port with everything in her, while the skipper takes the train home to spend Sunday with his family.
With such arrangements as the above the skipper lives aboard his boat, sometimes not touching shore for three or four days. Sitting on her oilcloth-covered floor to cook a meal, he can reach everything necessary without moving his position; sitting there at night with the tent up he has 4 ft. of headroom in a waterproof cabin, which can be made warm and cosy in December by keeping one of the oil stoves alight; and anchored at night in a cove he sleeps like a top on a soft "air mattress," rocked gently by the waves.
PLATES XL. AND XLI. - "FOREST AND STREAM" CRUISER.
The sneakbox is essentially a hunting boat, and the Barnegat cruiser shown in Plate XXXIX. partakes largely of the same characteristics. As the attention of boating men has been more generally drawn to the cruising qualities of the sneakbox, many comments, criticisms and suggestions have been made for the improvement of the model as a cruiser, leaving out all considerations of duck shooting and looking only to the end of a safe, speedy and convenient boat, adapted both for general cruising on open water and a safe boat for summer sailing. To meet these wants the accompanying design was made and a boat built which has proved very satisfactory on trial. The new craft is based on the sneakbox, the bottom of which is kept almost intact; but an inspection of the former boat showed several features capable of alteration, if cruising only was considered. In the first place, the low sides, excellent if the boat is to be used as a blind, have been built up; the excessive crown of deck has been reduced, and the washboards have been discarded. As the height of the deck in the new boat is less than that of the washboard on the old, the windage is reduced, while the room inside and the stability are both increased by the additional bulk of the new boat. At the same time the new boat will stow for transport in the same breadth and height as the old, the total depth being the same. The increased freeboard and higher bow improve the boat greatly in rough water.
On the other hand, the high washboards made a convenient receptacle for the oars, etc., but the extra inside room in the latter offers a full compensation. The folding rowlocks are given up entirely, thus removing a troublesome appendage, and cleats are fitted to the coaming, in which ordinary socket rowlocks are set. If it is desired to use a longer oar the cleats may be screwed to the deck near the gunwale. As there is no special virtue in the awkward-looking square stern of the sneakbox, the deck and planking have been extended 2 ft. aft, the latter merely continuing in a fair upward curve until they meet at the gunwale as in the bow. This gives a handsome finish to the boat, in the shape of an elliptical stern, with an easier run, more buoyancy and increased deck room. The rudder is of the balanced variety, a suggestion of the owner of the Bojum, the stock being of 7/8 in. iron, to the lower end of which two flat pieces 1x1/4 in. are welded, making a shape like a tuning fork. In this fork a piece of 1 in. oak is set, forming the rudder, the head of the stock is squared for a tiller, and at the level of the deck a hole is drilled for an iron pin, supporting the whole. To form the rudder trunk a piece of pine 3 in. square is fitted from the inside of the planking to the deck, being set in white lead and well screwed through plank and deck. Through the center of this piece a vertical hole 1 in. in diameter is bored for the rudder stock.
Owing to the extended deck aft, both the cockpit and centerboard are further aft than in the ordinary sneak-box. The coaming of the cockpit is 2-1/2 in. high. The floor boards are raised from 3 to 3-1/2n. above the bottom, so that the bilge water will not slop over them, the extra depth allowing this change. There are no fixed thwarts, the oarsman sitting on a box which holds the stores, etc., on a cruise, while in sailing the crew sit on deck or on the floor. When used for pleasure sailing five or six may be accommodated, and in cruising a bed for three can be made up on the wide floor of the 16 ft. boat. A tent can easily be rigged over the boat at night, supported by the boom. For one or two persons such a boat 13 ft. over all will be quite large enough for cruising, and may be built of light weight. The dimensions and scales are for two sizes, 16 and 13 ft. over all.
Table of Offsets - Thirteen Foot Cruiser Stations Heights Half-Breadths Keel Deck Deck No.1 No.2 No.3 No.4 L.W.L. No.6 No.7 Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. 0 1 74 1 74 0 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 1 1 1 6 73 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 2 5 1 46 1 03 96 84 64 37 .... .... .... 3 14 1 34 1 41 1 3 1 22 1 11 115 95 67 05 4 02 1 26 1 66 1 62 1 55 1 47 1 37 1 24 1 06 95 5 .... 1 21 1 85 1 81 1 76 1 7 1 61 1 46 1 31 1 02 6 .... 1 17 1 95 1 92 1 86 1 8 1 71 1 56 1 37 1 07 X .... 1 16 1 10 1 95 1 91 1 83 1 74 1 6 1 4 1 1 8 .... 1 16 1 96 1 93 1 9 1 82 1 72 1 56 1 37 1 06 9 .... 1 17 1 9 1 85 1 82 1 74 1 64 1 51 1 3 113 10 12 1 21 1 74 1 7 1 64 1 55 1 44 1 25 113 .... 11 37 1 24 1 5 1 4 1 32 1 15 107 64 .... .... 12 82 1 27 1 13 96 64 .... .... .... .... .... 13 1 34 1 34 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....
Table of Offsets - Sixteen Foot Cruiser Sta. Keel Deck Deck No.1 No.2 No.3 No.4 L.W.L. No.6 No.7 0 2 2 0 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 1 1 32 1 94 76 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 2 1 03 1 9 1 1 85 63 3 .... .... .... .... 3 52 1 76 1 53 1 31 1 2 1 04 10 63 .... .... 4 12 1 66 1 86 1 74 1 65 1 55 1 4 1 17 11 53 5 01 1 6 1 113 1 104 1 97 1 87 1 76 1 6 1 37 1 02 6 .... 1 53 2 11 2 04 2 1 11 1 10 1 83 1 65 1 26 7 .... 1 51 2 22 2 16 2 12 2 02 1 112 1 95 1 73 1 36 8 .... 1 5 2 26 2 23 2 16 2 06 1 116 1 10 1 76 1 37 X .... 1 5 2 3 2 25 2 2 2 1 2 1 101 1 75 1 37 10 .... 1 5 2 27 2 22 2 16 2 06 1 115 1 96 1 74 1 34 11 .... 1 51 2 2 2 13 2 07 2 1 106 1 9 1 64 1 21 12 1 1 52 2 04 2 1 112 1 104 1 9 1 71 1 36 94 13 31 1 54 1 103 1 94 1 86 1 73 1 53 1 17 75 .... 14 64 1 57 1 74 1 55 1 4 1 1 8 .... .... .... 15 114 1 63 1 3 91 24 .... .... .... .... .... 16 .... 1 7 0 .... .... .... .... .... .... ....DIMENSIONS OF "FOREST AND STREAM" CRUISER. Length over all 13 ft. 16 ft. waterline 9 ft. 4-1/2 in. 11 ft. 7 in. Beam, extreme 3 ft. 8 in. 4 ft. 6 in. Depth at gunwale 1 ft. 1-3/4 in. 1 ft. 5 in. Sheer, bow 5-3/4 in. 7 in. stern 1-3/4 in. 2 in. Crown to deck 2 in. 3 in. Fore side of stem to- Mast 2 ft. 5-1/2 in. 3 ft. Trunk, fore end 2 ft. 8 in. 3 ft. 3 in. after end 6 ft. 4 in. 7 ft. 9 in. Well, fore end 5 ft. 8 in. 6 ft. 11 in. after end 10 ft. 11 in. 13 ft. 6 in. Rowlocks 8 ft. 7 in. 10 ft. 6 in. Rudder 11 ft. 11 in. 14 ft. 8 in. Width of well 2 ft. 6 in. 3 ft.
The stations are 1 ft. apart by both scales. In the 13 ft. boat the waterlines are 1-5/8 in. apart, and in the 16 ft., 2 in. The scantling for the 13 ft. boat would be, planking 1/2 in., deck 3/8 in., timbers 7/8x1/2 in., spaced 9 in. The larger boat would have 5/8 in. planking, 1/2 in. deck, and timbers 1x1/2 in., spaced 10 in. The stern is framed as described for the stem on page 182, two quarter pieces being cut to the outline of deck and fastened to transom and upper end of keel. A sternpost and scag are fitted after the boat is taken from the stocks, and two bilge keels are screwed outside. The centerboard is of yellow pine, edge-bolted with 1/4 in. iron and weighted with lead. The deck is covered with 6oz. duck, laid in fresh paint. A half round bead makes a finish around the gunwale and covers the edge of the canvas. If a handsome little sailing boat is desired, the hull above water will be painted black or white, with a gold stripe as shown, the bottom being coated with copper bronze. The boat shown was built by J. MacWhirter, of West New Brighton, Staten Island. The cost will vary according to size and finish, from $125 for a 13 ft. boat with sail and galvanized fittings to $160 for a 16 ft. boat finished with brass fittings.
Only three forms of sail are in common use in American waters, the boom and gaff, the leg of mutton or sharpie, and the sprit, and of these the former is by far the most common. In spite of its serious disadvantages, and the fact that there are many better rigs, it has held its own for many years, and is still as popular. Within a half dozen years the canoe men have given to the world a number of new rigs, either of new design or adopted from abroad, and in this point of good and efficient sails, these new sailors are far ahead of the older boat-sailing experts with far more experience. Chief among the newfangled ideas of the canoeist is the balance lug, an English adaptation of a Chinese sail, now extensively used in this country and applicable to all small boats. This sail has been chosen for the "Forest and Stream" cruiser, and has worked very successfully.
Of course the first requisite in going to windward is a taut luff, as with it shaking nothing can be done. With a badly cut and made lug sail this cannot well be had; but a boom and gaff sail has this doubtful advantage, that by means of two halliards it may be strained and stretched into some kind of shape, though never what it should be. With a properly cut sail this advantage in favor of the boom and gaff disappears.
On a small boat one sail, if rigged so as to be easily handled, is not only faster, but much more easily managed than two, one being a jib. It is of course much better to windward or free, while there are fewer lines. The requisites for such a sail are different in a large and in a small boat, as in the former there is much more room to stand and work halliards and lines; there are usually more to help, and the mast is always kept standing. In a small boat the sail must hoist and lower easily, surely and quickly; it must be readily removed from the mast for stowage or in rowing, and it must be so placed as to balance properly in connection with the keel or centerboard. In all of these particulars the sail shown is better for sneakboxes, yachts' yawls, rowing and sailing boats, and other small craft, than the boom and gaff. The former has no mast rings to jam in hoisting and lowering, as they are always liable to do; it can be quickly removed from the mast; the latter is stepped much further from the bow, keeping the weight aft and being easily reached and unstepped, while before the wind the sail is not all on one side of the mast and boat, but a large portion is so placed as to help balance the outer end.
The sail shown is for the 16 ft. cruiser, and is made of yacht drill, 6oz., double bighted, bights running parallel with the upper portion of the leach. The gear is rigged as follows: The boom, 2 in. greatest diameter, is 14 ft. long, to allow for stretch, and is laced to the foot of the sail, the latter having about 3 in. roach or rounding. A single brass block (i) is lashed to the outer end for the sheet (f). Just abreast of the mast is lashed a snaphook. As the greatest strain on the boom is at this point, it is stiffened by a fish batten (l l) of oak, 1/2 in. square at middle and tapering at ends, the length being 2 ft. This batten is lashed to the boom by four lashings of fine twine, and adds materially to the strength, while lighter and less clumsy than an enlargement of the fore end of boom would be.
The head of the sail is cut with a round of 9 in., 1 in. per foot, for the following reason: A straight stick, like a yard, is very elastic, even if of considerable size. and will bend greatly at the ends. If, however, it be curved in the first place, it then requires some force to bend it further. The principle is well shown in the common bow, which is easily strung, but then requires a heavy pull to bend it. Another important advantage follows this form; the yard or bow is first curved in a vertical plane and held there by the sail. Now, with this tension on it, it resists powerfully any lateral strain that would throw the peak to leeward. This is aided by the peculiar cut of the sail. The yard is brought far down the luff and a large part of its length is forward of the mast. When the luff is properly set up a very strong leverage is put on the yard, holding the head well to windward. The sail is approximately square in shape, as this form gives the maximum area with a minimum average of spars, mast, boom and yard. The clew is cut off, as will be seen, as a shortening of the yard by a foot or so lessens the area but little. Two battens are laced in the sail as shown, with reef points, and a hand reef may be added, such as has been described previously for canoes. It will be simpler to run the hand reef to a cleat on the boom instead of on deck, as a man can stand up readily in a large boat, and can reach the boom near the fore part, while in a canoe he must keep his seat, consequently the lines must lead to his hand, at the cost of simplicity. The battens are 1-1/8x3/4 at middle and 3/4 in. square at ends, and are run in pockets in the sail.
The yard is 1-1/8 diameter at largest part, the middle third of its length, and is rigged as follows: A rope strap (o) is worked on it, a fish batten (m m) being used as on the boom. The eye of the strap is large enough to admit a snaphook on halliard, or better yet, a snatchblock may be employed. The halliard (a a) of 9-thread manilla rope, leads through a sheave at masthead, thence through a deck pulley near mast, and is belayed on one of two cleats on deck at the fore end of well. In its upper end a snap or gaff topsail hook is spliced, and on the mast is a 4 in. galvanized iron or brass ring (n) bent into oval form, -1/2x4-3/4 in. It must be large enough to slide readily without danger of jamming. The halliard is passed through the strap on yard and then hooked to the ring. When hauled taut the yard is always held in to the mast, whether full sail or reefed is carried.
A lug sail can hardly be set taut by a halliard, but a tack tackle must be employed, and a very powerful one is rigged as follows: On the mast is another ring, to which is lashed a brass block (d). On deck is a deck pulley at port side of mast. The tack line (b) is made fast to the deck abaft the pulley, the end is rove up and forward through the block (d), thence down and aft through deck pulley to cleat at fore end of well. In setting sail the mast is stepped, hook on boom is snapped into the eye of block (d), the two parrels on the bottom are tied, the halliard is passed from aft forward through the strap on yard and hooked to upper ring (n); then the sail is hoisted as high as possible, after which, when the halliard is belayed, the tack is hauled down until the sail is perfectly flat. In reefing or lowering it is best to start the tack first, then when the halliard is set up the tack is hardened down again.
A toppinglift (e) is thus fitted: The line is double, running from masthead down each side of sail and splicing into one just below boom, leaving enough slack to lower the latter. On the boom is a fairleader (k) lashed fast, and through this the toppinglift is rove, thence to a cleat on boom. It may thus be easily reached for a pull at any time, even with the boom hard off. In hoisting or reefing the toppinglift should take the weight of the boom always.
In removing the sail the end is cast off and the lift remains on the mast. In setting sail the latter is first dropped into the bight of the toppinglift, the fore end of spars on deck at port side of mast. The lift is made fast to cleat, raising the sail, the tack and halliard are snapped on, and all is ready for hoisting. A jackstay, from masthead, and made fast to mast about 1 ft. above deck, will be found very useful in holding up the fore ends of spars and sail.
On each batten a parrel is made fast, to hold the sail to the mast on the starboard tack. These are small lines about 2-1/2 ft. long, the fore ends fast to the battens, while the after ends are tied or hooked into rings lashed to the battens.
The sheet in a small boat is always a trouble, wherever it may be made fast it is always in the way. The plan adopted in the present case is perhaps as good as any. The sheet runs through a block (i) on boom and an eye splice is worked at each end. On deck are three cleats, one (g) just abaft the rudderhead, and the others (h) on each side of well. When on the wind the after eye of sheet is hooked over the after cleat (g) while the sheet is held in the hand or belayed to one of the forward cleats; or if desirable the eye may hook over one of the latter. When the boom is off the sheet is cast off from the cleat and its whole length is used, the eye at the end preventing it from unreeving from the block. By this method a very short sheet is required, while a good purchase may be had when on the wind, and the sheet can always be arranged to be out of the way of the sailor.
Fitted as described the sail will be found a very effective one, and once accustomed to it there is no difficulty in handling it quickly, while it is much less troublesome and cumbrous than a mainsail and jib. If for any reason the latter must be used, it can be fitted on a stay, the luff of the sail being cut down as much as possible, so as to allow room for the jib, but in almost all small boats the single sail will be found best.