The success of the earlier canoes called the attention of boating men generally to the many good points of this type of boat, with the result that a number of large craft have been built much on the lines of the ordinary sailing canoe. All of the earlier boats were yawl rigged, some like a canoe and others with a jib, and hence the name "canoe yawl" was given to distinguish them from the small canoe. Within the past three years the number of these boats has greatly increased in England, while they are also becoming better known and liked in America, and some of them make very fine cruising craft, being far more able and powerful than the canoe. They are built with centerboard or keel, generally the latter, and are rigged with the main and mizen, like the canoe, or as cutters, sloops and yawls, the latter being perhaps the best for single-hand cruising. Some of them. such as the Cassy, the Water Rat and the Viper, have made their reputations as cruisers by several seasons of constant work in open waters. They are well fitted for bays and arms of the sea where the canoe cannot safely and comfortably be used; their shape, that of the whale boat and surf boat, is one of the best for a sea boat, and they are less costly to build than the small counter-sterned yacht, while superior to the square-sterned boat.


This boat was designed to have a light draft and to be light enough to house easily, so a fixed keel and ballast were dispensed with. Her leading dimensions are: Length, 18 ft.; beam, 5 ft. The drawings show a slightly smaller boat, but a scale was used in building which brought the beam up to 5 ft. Annie was built at Oswego, N.Y., for Mr. Geo. N. Burt, by Joseph Henley, who made the model from the owner's instructions. She has been used on Lake Ontario with great success, proving fast as well as safe and comfortable for pleasure sailing. As the hull is light it can readily be hauled in or out of the house by one man, quite a consideration in some localities. Annie is planked with 7/16 cedar and white pine in alternate streaks, the timbers being 7/8x1/2 in. spaced 4 in. The deck is of cedar, on chestnut carlins 1x1-3/4 in., spaced 6 in. The cockpit is 7 ft. 2 in. long and 3 ft. 5 in. wide, with a 3 in. coaming of butternut. The centerboard trunk is 3 ft. long and the board is of boiler plate, 26lbs. The total weight of hull is 300lbs. The ballast consists of six bricks of lead, 25lbs. each, stowed in the space abreast the trunk, besides which two bags of sand, 50lbs. each, are carried in the well. The lead bricks are covered with canvas and have rope handles, so they are quickly carried in or out. The spaces in each end are filled with air tanks, one being placed also on each side of the well as shown. No oars are used, a paddle being carried for calm weather, but the boat is expected to sail whenever there is any wind. She is rigged with a loom and gaff mainsail and a sprit mizen. The mainmast is 17 ft., heel to head, and 3 in. in diameter; mainboom 12 ft., gaff 5 ft. 4 in., mizenmast 11 ft., and 2-1/4 in. in diameter, boom 5 ft. The hoist of mainsail is 12 ft. 4 in., and of mizen 8 ft. The main gaff has peak and throat halliards, the former with double block on mast and single on gaff. Both halliards lead through fairleaders on deck to the after end of trunk, where they belay. The rudder is fitted with long steering lines. There are no fixed thwarts, but movable seats are used. A spinaker is carried on the mainmast, the boom being jointed for stowage. She has been through some bad weather on Lake Ontario, proving herself a fine rough water boat, riding lightly and going well to windward in rough water. In ordinary sailing she is very fast, and with two or three persons aboard carries her sail easily.


Length					14 ft.
Beam					 3 ft. 4 in.
Depth midships				 1 ft. 4 in.
Sheer, bow	 	   		      11-1/2 in.
       stern				       5 in.
Bow to after side of tabernacle	 	 3 ft.
	 fore end of trunk	   	 4 ft.
	 after end of trunk		 7 ft.
	 after end of well		11 ft. 6 in.
	 rowlocks			 9 ft. 6 in.
Area, mainsail-racing			120 sq. ft.
	mainsail-cruising		60-70 sq. ft.
      mizen				15 sq. ft.
	Length of tabernacle	 	     18 in.
	oars				8 ft.
Width of rudder				1 ft.  6 in.

The canoe yawl Cassy was designed and built by Mr. G. F. Holmes, for use on the Humber River. She is fitted with the tabernacle and centerboard devised by Mr. Tredwen, the latter of 70lbs. being all the ballast used with cruising rig, but sandbags are carried in racing, about 100lbs. being used. The forward thwart can be placed 2 in. below the gunwale for rowing, or about 6 in. above the bottom for sailing. The rig includes two balance lugs as in a canoe, with a deck tiller. The smaller cut is described on page 23.


The Vital Spark is of canoe model, 18 ft. long, 5 ft. beam, 2 ft. 2 in. draft. She is carvel built, with 3/4 in. planking, keel sided 3-1/2 at middle, 1-3/4 at ends, with 4-1/2wt. of lead underneath, and an equal amount of lead inside. The sail plan is that of a similar boat, the Viper, whose sheer plan and rig are shown in the drawing; she is 20 ft. long, beam 5 ft. 5 in., depth to gunwale amidships, 2 ft. 6 in. Deck has a crown of 5 in., and is of light wood covered with canvas. Her keel has 19cwt., 2qrs., 19lbs. of lead, with 2cwt., 1qr., 18lbs. inside, and an iron keelson of 75lbs. The depth of keel is 1 ft. 9 in., and the total depth 3 ft. 4 in.

The rig is a convenient one for small boats, as jib and mizen may be used together in strong winds, the mainsail being stowed. The Viper, as shown, carries a staysail as well as a jib, and a small gaff trysail.


The term "yawl" applied to a cutter-rigged boat is an anomaly, but the type of boat in question is now commonly known as the "canoe yawl," from its derivation directly from the canoe and the fact that it is almost invariably yawl rigged. The boat shown in Plate XXXV. was built from the lines of the Vital Spark, Plate XXXIV., but was rigged as a cutter. Her dimensions are as follows:

Length on deck							18 ft.	4 in.
Beam								 5 ft.
Draft								 2 ft.	2 in.
Freeboard							 1 ft.
Cockpit								 7ft	6 in. x 4 ft.
Lead keel							850	pounds.
Ballast Inside. iron						250	pounds.
Planking								3/4 in.
Mast, from fore side of stem					6 ft.	10 in.
Mast, deck to hounds						14 ft.	3 in.
Mast, deck to truck						18 ft. 9 in.
Mast, diameter at deck							4 in.
Bowsprit, outboard						6 ft.
Bowsprit, diameter at stem						3 in.
Mainboom							15 ft.
Mainboom, diameter							2-1/2 in.
Gaff (oval, 2-1/4x1-1/2i.n)					9 ft.	6 in.
Center of lateral resistance aft center of loadline		10 in.
Center of effort forward of center of loadline			5 in.
Center of effort above loadline					6 ft. 	4 in.

		Foot.		Luff. 		Leech. 		Head.		Area.
Mainsail	13.9		11.0		17.8		8.9		150 sq. ft.
Staysail	 8.2		13.0		11.3		...		 48 sq. ft.
Jib		 8.0		15.8		11.0		...		 45 sq. ft.
Total sail area									233 sq. ft.
Area of reefed mainsail								 80 sq. ft.

With the above amount of ballast the draft is a little less than 26 in., but in cruising the crew and stores would bring her to her loadline. The center of effort of reefed mainsail and whole staysail is shown at C E 2, and of the two headsails at C E 3. Many will object to the double rig, but in practice it is found to work excellently, being very easily handled. The three small sails are easily set by a boy, and the headsail sheets, leading to the rail as shown, may be reached from the tiller. In tacking they are readily got down with one hand without leaving the stick. The jib is set flying, the outhaul being an endless line, with a snaphook spliced in. The hook is snapped to the jib tack, the sail partly hoisted and hauled out. When not in use it is stowed in a bag instead of being furled on the bowsprit. No jibstay being needed, the bowsprit is fitted with a tackle on the bobstay and is easily housed entirely, which is sometimes a great convenience in running into odd places as such small boats constantly do. The fittings are very simple, a gammon iron bolted to port side of stem head, a sampson post of 2x6 in. oak plank, with a 3-1/4 in. hole bored through for the heel of the round bowsprit, a fid of 1/2 in. round iron, and two small iron blocks for the bobstay tackle, one hooking into a wire rope bobstay.

In some cases a tabernacle and lowering mast are desirable, and with a forestay both are easily fitted. The tabernacle is made of two pieces, B B, of oak 1-1/4x4 inches, stepped in the keel, D, and coming to the coaming I I. The mast is stepped in the block C under the floor K, and is held by the forestay and two shrouds, all fitted with turnbuckles. A bar F of l-1/4x1/4 in. iron is bolted to the tabernacle's sides, one bolt G being fitted with a thumb nut, while the bar is slotted on the starboard side to slip over the neck of the bolt, turning on the port bolt. When G is loosened the bar may be turned over out of the way and the mast lowered. To avoid cutting away the floor for a distance aft of the mast, a block of oak, E, is bolted to the heel of the latter, on the after side. When the mast is lowered the block turns on the edge L, lifting the mast out of the step as it falls aft. In lowering, the halliards are stopped to the mast out of the way, the jib halliard is carried forward and hooked to stem head, the bar F is swung back and the mast is lowered by the jib halliard. The shrouds and also the parrel on the gaff must both be slackened. One man can readily lower and hoist the mast for bridges, etc.

The leads of the various lines are as follows: Throat halliards to cleat d on starboard side, peak to cleat b on same side so that both can be reached at the same time; staysail halliards on cleat e, jib on cleat a, toppinglift on cleat ee on mast, staysail downhaul knotted in hole in coaming at f. The mainsail is thus set from the starboard and the headsails from the port side of the boom, and the downhaul is handy to the staysail halliard. All are easily reached by leaving the tiller for a moment, and one man can manage all lines. The boat has air tanks in each end, a large cuddy forward and seats in the cockpit. For cruising the seats would fold out, making a bed for two or even three (4x7 ft.), while a tent would be pitched over the boom. The yawl rig would answer well for such a boat, but the present one has proved very satisfactory for singlehanded sailing and cruising.

The following descriptions of similar boats are given by correspondents of the London Field in answer to inquiries:

One writer says: "I have just launched a canoe yawl, length 18 ft. by 5 ft. 8 in. beam, and a draft of 2 ft. aft, and 1 ft. 8 in. forward. She has at present 9cwt. of lead and iron ballast inside, but requires 4cwt. or 5cwt. more. She is fitted with a well 7 ft. 6 in. in length, the fore end being 7 ft. 6 in. from the fore side of the stem. She is rigged with a standing lug mainsail, hoisted with a single halliard, and the tack purchased down with a gun tackle; the clew is hauled out with a traveler on the boom, which is fitted to the mast with a gooseneck; the mast is stepped 2 ft. 6 in. aft of the outside of the stem; the mizzen mast is stepped 1 ft. inboard from the stern, the sail being a leg o' mutton. Height of mainmast above deck, 19 ft.; height of mizzenmast above deck, 10 ft.; length of head of lug, 14 ft.; length of luff of lug, 9 ft.; length of leach of lug, 23 ft.; length of foot of lug, 13 ft. 6 in.; length of luff of mizzen, 8 ft. 6 in.; length of leach of mizzen, 8 ft. 6 in.; length of foot of mizzen, 6it. On the trial trip she handled very well under sail; with the tiller amidship, she nearly steered herself on a wind. In placing the well aft I secured room for a comfortable little cuddy under the foredeck, with a headroom of 32 in.; and with only 3ft of deck aft of the well, I do not require a deck yoke steering gear, as used on the Mersey canoe yawls, but have an ordinary iron tiller, with a crook in it to pass the mizzen. I think 'Pansy' could not find a much handier rig for this class of boat. I may mention that I have had the above canoe yawl built for use on the Humber."

Another adds: "In reply to 'Pansy,' permit me to say that I have sailed single-handed for some years a Mersey canoe with a center plate, nearly the same size as 'Pansy's,' under a standing lug and mizzen, and a handier, safer and more seaworthy little craft I could not desire. She was built here very faithfully and cheaply. I have, however, found that the sail originally given her was too much for real sea work, although considerably less in area than Mersey canoes are designed theoretically to carry. My ballast was 370lbs. lead inside, and the iron plate weighed 110lbs. The sail I tried to carry at times was a lug with a boom 10 ft. on head and foot; luff, 5 ft.; leach, 14 ft.; jibheaded mizzen, foot, 5 ft.; luff, 6 ft. 6 in.; leach, 7 ft.; height of mainmast, step to truck, 12 ft. But seldom indeed could I give her this sail when single-handed, so I reduced the inside ballast to about 112lbs., the mainsail to 8 ft. on head and foot for light winds, and had another lug 6 ft. 6 in. on head and foot, with 4 ft. luff and a reef in the mizzen for every-day work; under the latter sails the boat was, all round, more useful and infinitely drier in a sea way. Guided by rough experience, I advocate for single-handed small boat work, the lug and mizzen sail plan, with a shift of main lugs (the lug set by Dixon Kemp's plan of peak and throat halliards, which is admirable indeed), in preference to lug, jib and mizzen. Simplicity is the true motto for single-handed small boat work at sea; and if a boat is equally handy without the head sail, why should gear be complicated with head sheets and halliards?"


The Mersey canoes or canoe yawls, have grown out of the small canoes, and are used like them for general cruising, but on more open waters. The dimensions are: Length 17 ft., beam 4 ft. 6 in., depth 2 ft. Oars are used, as the beam is too great to admit of paddling. The deck and well is similar to a canoe. Lead ballast is stored under the floors. The rig consists of two lugs, main and mizzen, the dimensions being:

			Racing		Cruising
			mainsail.	mainsail.	Mizzen.
			Ft. In.		Ft. In.		Ft. In.
Foot			10  00		 6  06		 4  06
Head			10  00		 7  06	 	2  06
Luff			 5  00		 2  06	 	2  04
Leach 			14  06		10  00	 	6  00
Tack to peak		14  08		 9  00	 	5  09
Clew to throat		10  09		 7  00	 	4  09

As there is no centerboard the interior of the well is entirely unobstructed, and there is room for three persons, though on a cruise two, with the necessary stores and baggage, would be enough. Beds for two might easily be made up on the wide, flat floor, a tent being pitched over the well, while the seats may be removed entirely at night. Under the fore and after decks is ample room for storage of all stores. The steering is done with a deck tiller, as in a canoe. In building such a boat, the stem, sternpost and keel would be of oak-or the former of hackmatack - sided 1-1/2 in.; keelson of oak, 3x1/2 in.; plank of cedar, 5/16 or 3/8 in. lapstreak; gunwale of oak or mahogany; deck of 3/8 in. pine, covered with 6 to 8oz. drill laid in paint; coamings of oak, 3/8 in. thick. The ribs would be 3/8x5/8, spaced 9 in., with floors at every alternate frame.

The sails are rigged as "standing lugs," or a yawl rig similar to the Viper may be carried. They will be of 6oz. drill, double bighted; rigging of "small 6-thread" manilla; blocks of wood, iron or brass.

The dimensions of a similar canoe are given in "Cruises in Small Yachts and Big Canoes," by Mr. H. F. Speed, as follows: 16 ft. long, 4 ft. 1-1/2 in. beam, 20 in. deep amidships, with 6-1/2 in. of keel, containing 3cwt. of lead. Inside she carried 1cwt. 10lbs. of lead. The sail area was 180 ft. mainsail and mizen, lugs, with jib, the dimensions of spars being:

Main mast			13 ft. 1 in.
boom for lug sail		10 ft. 4 in.
yard for lug sail		12 ft. 6 in.
	boom for gaff mainsail	 8 ft. 5 in.
	gaff for gaff mainsail	 8 ft. 5 in.
Mizen mast			 8 ft.
boom				 6 ft. 4 in.
	yard			 7 ft. 4 in.
boomkin, outboard		 2 ft. 6 in.
Bowsprit, outboard		 5 ft. 9 in.
Spinaker boom			10 ft. 6 in.
Tonnage, "one ton and an awfu1 fraction."

Her well was 5 ft. 6 in. long and 2 ft. 6 in. wide, with a locker aft for stores, open lockers along the side, and two shifting thwarts, steering with a half yoke on the rudder, and a rod hinged thereto, the motion, of course, being fore and aft. The well was covered completely by a tent.


This boat was built in 1887 by J. A. Akester, of Hornsea, near Hull, Eng., and is now owned by Mr. Holmes, of the Cassy. The hull is carvel built. The mast is fitted with a tabernacle for lowering, the sail plan being shown in plate. The inside ballast is in four blocks, two being generally carried, while the lead keel weighs 450lbs. A centerboard could readily be fitted to work entirely beneath the floor, and would be a great aid to the boat in windward work. The tiller is of iron, and curved as shown to as to work about the mizen mast. The dimensions are as follows:

Length over all			18 ft.
   l.w.1			17 ft. 4 in.
Beam, extreme			 5 ft.	1 in.
   l.w.l			 4 ft.	7 in.
Draft, extreme			 1 ft.	4-1/2 in.
Least freeboard			 1 ft.	1 in.
Sheer, 	bow				10-1/2 in.
	stern 				7 in.
Ballast, keel, lead 		450lbs.
	   inside, lead		225lbs.
Mainmast, from stem	 	 2 ft. 3-1/2 in.
        deck to truck		15 ft. 3 in.
Mizenmast, from stem		17 ft. 3-1/2 in.
        deck to truck	 	 7 ft.
Mizen boomkin		 	 2 ft. 3 in.
Main boom			15 ft.
     yard			15 ft.
Mizen boom			 6 ft.
      batten		 	 6 ft. 6 in.
Mainsail, area			168 sq. ft
Mizen, area	 		 25 sq. ft
 Total				193 sq. ft

Table of Offsets - Canoe Yawl Iris
StationsHeightsHalf Breadths
DeckRab'tKeelDeckNo.1No.2L.W.L.No.4 No.5Rabbet
0........02............ ........1
23  021168 1  078475232 ....15
42  99452 1  911  61  41  12 944525
62  71773 2  222  051  115 1  861  511331
82  62714 2  532  442  34 2  21  1121  6132
102  56704 2  622  562  47 2  342  121  84 32
122  666....2  55 2  472  42  24 1  1161  7331
142  746602 2  222  061  115 1  101  711  213
162  976611 1  551  331  17 1       94652
183  04....203 ....................1

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