PLATES XXVII., XXVIII. AND XXIX., 15x31, CLASS B, RACING AND CRUISING CANOE.
[GUENN]

This design was made in 1883 for Mr. Wm. Whitlock, of New York, by Mr. John Hyslop, and from it the well known Guenn was built in the winter of '83-4. Unfortunately she was too large for the A. C. A. limits, and in order to race she had to be shortened, drawn in and re-decked after being in use for some time, which altered the lines materially. Further than this, she was heavily built, with a large keel and a fan centerboard, thus handicapping her in racing. In spite of these disadvantages she has shown good speed at times, and there is every reason to believe that the model is a fast one, though not fairly tested in Guenn.

In the present design the outlines of the hull have been preserved intact, but the raking sternpost of Guenn has been replaced by a straight one, in accordance with the latest practice, and the exterior keel and the deep deadwood aft have also been cut away. The scantling is given for a light but strong cruising boat, and with the model and suitable rig she should prove a winner in the races as well. A canoe built closely to these lines would be a very different craft from the old Guenn. The hull is large and powerful and well fitted to carry a large load of stores and gear, or heavy board and some ballast for racing. Her place should be about New York and on broad waters, rather than on the upper Hudson and the Connecticut; and she will undoubtedly make an excellent all-round boat and an able racer as well, even though she should prove unable to master the Pecowsics in all weathers. The design is the first that Mr. Hyslop had ever made for a canoe, a class of boat with which he was not familiar, and the dimensions and the leading particulars were given by Mr. Whitlock, the designer being responsible only for the lines of the model.

It will be noticed that the drawing measures but 30-3/8 in. extreme beam, with planking. If the moulds are carefully made to this size the boat when planked may be allowed to spread a little, bringing her to 31 in., leaving 1/2 in. inside the A. C. A. limit before the deck is put on. This is better than building to the exact width, as the boat will always spread a little. At the same time it would be possible to build a 30 in. boat from the same moulds, using a little care in drawing the sides together before timbering, and fastening them well until the deck frame is in, but it is always best to build a light boat narrower rather than wider than she is to be, and then allow her to spread a little. If a smaller boat is desired the design may be cut down in depth, taking 2 in. off the sheer all around without impairing its integrity. Such a boat would of course need no ballast, and would be a very fair match for Notus, Vesper and others of that class. The line shown for crown of deck is simply drawn in with a batten to make a fair sweep, with a crown of 2 in. at midships. This will not allow one beam mould to be used throughout, as the round of the deck beams varies at each station, but it will make a handsome deck. The dimensions are:

Length, extreme				15 ft.
Beam, extreme			 	 2 ft. 7 in.
Depth, amidships			 1 ft. 1/2 in.
Sheer, bow				      6-5/8 in.
	 stern				      2-1/2 in.
Draft, including keel			      6-1/4 in.
Displacement, to above draft		535lbs.
	        Per inch immersion	130lbs.
Area, midship section			.965 sq. ft.
	loadline plane			23.88 sq. ft.
	lateral plane			7.33 sq. ft.
C. L. R. from foreside of stem		7 ft. 9-1/4 in.

Waterlines, 2 in. apart; stations, 1 ft. apart.

Table of Offsets for Canoe "Guenn"
StationsHeightsHalf Breadths
DeckRabbetDeckNo. 10No. 8 No. 6No. 4No. 2Rabbet
01  71....01 0101................
11  561337 3125251306 04
21  430272 625444332 05
31  320197 9184735634 07
41  24....117 114111018353 11
51  16....1  13 1  121  071  02 1047112
61  12....1  22 1  231  211  15 1  028713
71  06....1  27 1  31  271  24 1  1410314
81  05....1  31 1  321  311  27 1  2111114
91  04....1  31 1  321  311  27 1  210713
101  04....1  25 1  261  251  22 1  19212
111  05....1  15 1  161  141  07 1117311
121  07011       1141121068651 07
131  130493 9847455306
141  211355 54435251204
151  3....0101 010101....01

The question of construction is still as much in dispute as ever, and with little probability of a final settlement, as each of the leading methods has its strong points, together with some marked disadvantages. The large and increasing demand for canoes of all sizes has stimulated the inventive powers of builders, both amateur and professional, with the result that many new methods have of late been tried with more or less success. The first American canoes were all lapstreak, and when, in 1851, the author first introduced the ribband-carvel method of building a smooth-skin boat, then used in England, it met with no favor from American canoeists, there being a strong prejudice in favor of the lapstreak. Fashions change in canoes as in dress, and for the past two years smooth-skin boats have been the rage, perhaps for no better reasons than those once urged against them. There are to-day half a dozen excellent methods of construction from which the canoeist can choose with a fair certainty of having a first-class canoe, and it would be a very difficult matter for an unprejudiced judge to say which, if any, is absolutely the best. After some experience in building and using canoes, and some familiarity with the different methods of construction, we feel safe in recommending the lapstreak, if properly built, as the best for cruising. Whether she will prove the fastest alongside of some of the smooth-hulled racers is still an open question, and most canoeists would say "No" to it, but some badly built lapstreaks have done so well in the races at times that there is every reason to think that an absolutely smooth skin counts for little against fine and well laid laps.

Of lapstreak work there are all kinds, from the clumsily-built pram of the Norwegians, with wooden plugs in place of nails, to the carefully planked canoe with a land something like that shown at 3. The edges of both plank must be very accurately beveled, the outer edge to a thickness of 1/16 in. or a little more, being rounded off as shown in sandpapering. The common lap is shown in 2, a strong joint, but giving a poor surface. The strength of the lap-streak has repeatedly been proved beyond question, it will stand both wear and hard knocks, while it is very light. With the requisite care and skill the bottom of the boat may be made to compare very favorably with any of the smooth-skin methods, and after a season of rough cruising the lapstreak canoe will probably be in better condition than the others. One method of securing a smooth skin is shown in 1, the plank being cut with a special plane, taking half out of each. The ribband-carvel canoes built by the author in 1881 and 2 had a strip inside the seam, as in 4, both planks being nailed to the strip, the ribs were put in afterward, being jogged over the ribband. The Albany canoes are built now on a similar plan, but by a method hardly suitable for amateur work. A strong mould or last is first constructed of the shape of the inside of the canoe. The deadwood and all the ribbands are fastened to this last, the ribbands are cut away so that the ribs can be let in flush, then the planks are laid and screwed to the ribbands and ribs. The construction of the mould or last over which the canoe is built is almost as troublesome and costly as the canoe itself, so this method is only practicable when a number of canoes are to be built of the same model. In the method shown in 4 the usual plank moulds are used, as in lapstreak work, so the process is well adapted to the needs of the amateur.

The details of board, rudder and steering gear here given were not part of the original Guenn, but are all original with the author. They are unpatented, and at the service of all.

In the construction of a canoe of this size, presumably to carry some ballast, the following scantling will give strength with little weight. The stem and sternpost will be of hackmatack, sided so as to end all lines fairly at the extreme ends. It has been the custom to make these pieces of 1 in. stuff, which in most cases makes an angle in the waterlines at the rabbet in stem and stern. To avoid this they must be sided as shown by the full size plan which will be laid down before building. The stem will be 1/4 in. on its fore edge, the sternpost 3/8 in. The stem band will be made from 1/4 in. half round brass rod, and after it is screwed in place the wood and brass will be filed down together until the lines are carried out straight and fair. The usual method is shown at 5, the proper one at 6, the dotted line in the latter shows where the stem is left a little thick in cutting the rabbet, being filed and planed down after the planking is completed and the stem band in place.

The keel is usually made at least 1 in. thick, but this is in no way necessary. It is better to make it as thin as possible and quite wide. In the present case it is shown 3 in. wide and 3/4 in. thick, but it might well be 4 or 5 in. wide outside and but 1/2 in. thick. The stiffness of the bottom depends but little on the thickness of the keel, the main point being to brace the whole floor system thoroughly by the ledges which carry the floorboards. The keel may be regarded simply as a wide bottom plank, and so need be but little thicker than the other planks. It is here shown 3/4n. thick, or 1/4 inside of boat, forming the rabbet, 1/4 for thickness of garboard, and 1/4 projecting outside of garboards. Really all that is needed is 1/4 for rabbet inside and 1/4 for garboard, leaving no projection outside. If at the same time the keel be 5 in. wide it makes a wide, flat surface on which the canoe will rest when ashore or on which she may be easily dragged over rocks or logs. It often happens that while a canoe can be dragged easily enough, there is great difficulty in holding her upright on her keel and at the same time dragging her, but with a wide keel she will always keep upright with little aid. In a canoe with much deadrise the keel, if very wide, may be slightly rounded, and in any case it should be protected by 3/8 in. strips of fiat brass 1/16 in. thick, screwed to the entire length and soldered or brazed to the stem band. With such protection and a similar strip 4 ft. long on each bilge, the boat will stand safely a great amount of hard work, and as for racing, the lessened damage to the planking will more than compensate for any slight friction of the brass. The keel should be worked from an inch board, leaving the full thickness at the ends to aid in forming the deadwood, but planing down to 1/2 in. or a little more at the middle half of the boat, say for a length of 8 ft. The scarfs of stem and sternpost as well as the fastenings are shown. It is now the fashion to place the mainmast as far forward as possible, to do which the step must come in a part where the lines are very fine, which necessitates a very thick step. The one shown is of clear white pine, to save weight, and is fastened in when the frame is put together. It must be very securely bolted and must be trimmed carefully to shape just as the deadwoods are, so that the planks will fit accurately against its sides. The step for the mizen may be put in afterward, in the usual way.

A simpler method of building the trunk than that on page 91 is to put the sides of the case together with the headledges between, riveting them up, then to get out a piece of pine as wide as the top of the keel and 1/2 in. thick, which piece is screwed fast with long screws to the bottom of the trunk. The lower side of this bedpiece is then accurately fitted to the top of keel and screwed fast by short screws passing through it into the keel. The labor of rabbeting is avoided and the joints, if laid with white lead and Canton flannel, will be perfectly tight. The sides of the case will be of clear white pine, 1/2 in. on lower edge and 3/8 in. at top. The headledges will be 1 in. wide and thick enough to allow ample room for the board. The planking will be 1/4 in., of white cedar. The upper strake, of the width shown in the drawing, will be full 3/8 in. thick, being rabbeted on the lower edge so as to lap over the strake below, showing 1/8 in. outside. There will be no gunwale, the deck being screwed to this upper strake. The ribs may be a little less than 3/8x1/4 in., spaced 6 in., with two rivets between. The bulkheads will be 3/8 in., of clear white pine. The deck will be of 1/4in mahogany. The ledges for the floor will be of spruce or hackmatack, as deep as the distance from floor to garboard, and 3/8 in. thick. They should be very securely fastened with long rivets through each lap and the keel, at least two through the latter. If long nails cannot be had, copper wire can be used, with large burrs on each end. These ledges should be placed alongside the trunk, of course being in two pieces each, and a stout one should be placed against the afterside of the trunk and screwed to the headledge. If well fastened they will make the bottom perfectly rigid, no matter how thin the keel may be, while boats are often found with a keel 1-1/4 in. thick that will constantly work under the strain of the board or when ashore. The centerboard trunk itself plays a very important part in strengthening the hull, if properly built into the boat and coming up to the deck.

The shifting bulkhead is placed with a slight slant, to accommodate the back better than if vertical. In planning the arrangements, every effort has been made to give plenty of room for cruising, not a mere hole where a man may stow himself for half an hour, but room to carry stores and bedding, to cook, to change one's clothes and to sleep in comfort. At the same time the sailing qualities could not be neglected, and the board has been placed as far aft as possible, with a provision for shifting it still further aft in sailing, as will be described later. The distance between bulkheads is 7 ft. 5 in., and as the boat is both wide and deep, this space should give plenty of room for all stores; but the after compartment might be fitted with a hatch if more room were desired. As now arranged, the mess chest could fit on one side of the trunk, and the clothes bag on the other; while the tent and the bedding, the latter tightly strapped in a waterproof bag, would be in the locker under the movable batch. In sleeping, there would be a clear length of 5 ft. 5-1/2 in. from bulkhead to after end of trunk, and the feet could extend for a few inches into the space beside the trunk lately occupied by the clothes bag, now doing duty as a pillow. The tent, of course, would be set, the bedding spread, and the hatch and bulkhead removed for the night. The space under the side decks affords plenty of room for oilers, spare gear, apron, etc. The well is large, as in summer cruising a man requires plenty of room, and if the feet and legs are kept continually below deck they will be very warm. Sleeping, cooking, and the positions one naturally takes to obtain a rest when afloat all day, demand more room than some racing men seem to think necessary. To close the large well in stormy weather, the best plan is an apron of heavy drill, fitting over the pointed coaming and tightly laced along the sides to screw heads outside the coamings. The apron may extend as far aft as the cleats shown. The mast tubes are 2-1/4 in. at deck, tapering. Both are of the same depth, so that the masts may be interchangable. It will be noticed that the coaming is cut down very low at the after end. It was formerly the custom to make the coaming as high there as anywhere, but this is not necessary, as little water will come aboard in the center of the deck, and by cutting the coaming down low the need of raising the deck tiller is avoided.

The arrangement of the centerboard is peculiar and entirely novel. The usual arrangement has a movable pulley for the lifting pendant, which pulley fits in a brass plate on deck (see page 94). This plate is apt to work loose under the strain of a heavy board, to avoid which the author devised the plan of fastening both lifting rod and pulley in their correct relative positions on a strip of hard wood. By this means the two are always in place, and the board may be lifted out or dropped in with a certainty that pulley and lifting rod are in their correct positions. The board is hung by two strips of sheet brass, the upper ends of both coming through the strip mentioned, being secured by a rivet. In use the board is hauled up, the pendant belayed on a cleat on the strip, and all may be lifted out together. With a board of 50lbs. it is sometimes all that a man can do to ship the lifting rod and pulley properly but with this arrangement no special adjustment is necessary, the board and strip are dropped in place and all is ready. In trying this arrangement the idea of moving the board forward and aft suggested itself, and the following details were devised to accomplish it. The strip was provided with four small wheels, a a a a, sections cut from a 3/4 in. brass rod, with an 1/8 in. hole drilled in the center. These wheels work in slots cut in the slip A. The lifting pendant leads through the cheek block C, or through a double block if more power is needed, or the line may lead directly aft, without a purchase. A line G, is attached to the fore end of A, leading through a cheek block D, on the deck, thence aft to a cleat, as shown. A third line E, is fast to the after end of A, and leads through a hole in the coaming, as shown. In operation, the board is first dropped, then by casting off the line G the strip A, with board suspended from it, will run aft until the lifting pendant reaches the after end of case, when the board will be in the position shown by the dotted line. This will carry the center of the board aft about a foot at least, and will make a material difference in the balance of the hull and sails. The line E is used to draw the board aft if necessary, or a rubber spring may be attached to it, so as to act automatically. In hoisting, the board must first be drawn forward by the line C, after which it may be raised by F. There is this objection - the board cannot be raised if aground until it is hauled forward, but as the device is for sailing, usually in deep water, this is of little consequence. If the device is to be placed in a new boat, the case may extend as shown about a foot further aft, to the height of the boards, in which event the board may be raised some distance while in the after position, or may be easily cleared in case of grounding. The main use of the shifting board is to improve the balance of sail, allowing full or reefed sail to be carried at will, and giving just as much weather helm as may be at any time desirable. By its use the centerboard trunk can be placed well forward, and yet in racing the board itself may be readily adjusted to one of several positions, and may be thrown at least a foot further aft. Two points are necessary; the case must be wide enough to allow the board to move freely, and the after pendant must be made fast so far aft that the board will not rise at the fore end through the after end being the heavier.

The cheek blocks may be cut out of mahogany, with brass sheaves, or they may be cut or sawn out of 1/16 in. sheet brass, filed up neatly and bent in a vise to the proper shape to fit the sheave. Sheaves of this kind are readily made by sawing with a hack saw pieces from the ends of brass rods of various sizes, holes are drilled in the centers, the pieces are held in a vise and the score or groove cut with a small round file. With a very few tools for working brass both blocks and sheaves with many other small fittings may be easily made by the amateur. The hoisting pulley B is shown on a large scale to illustrate the construction. The main part of the shell is made from a piece of sheet brass doubled over in the form shown, the upper part being a half circle. To each side a strip of brass bent at right angles is riveted, a mortise is cut in the strip A, the brass case is set in until the side pieces rest on the strip, and then fastened by screws through these sides. The pulley is put in place and the pin on which it turns is run through holes drilled in the sides of the case, the ends then being riveted up.

The rudder shown is of mahogany, a cruising rudder. The lower side, below the keel, is sharpened to a fine edge. The rudder hanging is shown in the small drawing, page 189. The part attached to the boat or canoe consists of an upper and lower brace of the usual form, A and C, with a rod E, 1/4 in., running through them and screwed into C. On the rudder is a common brace, B, at the top. At the bottom is a split brace, D, made of two castings, a and b, both exactly alike, but fastened on opposite sides of the rudder. The upper sides of the pair are shown at 1, the fore ends at 2, and the lower sides at 3. It will be seen that by laying the rudder horizontally with the port side, P uppermost. the opening between a and b, Fig. 2, will admit the rod E. Now if the rudder be raised to a vertical position, the two hooks embrace the rod E, the upper brace, B, is dropped over the top of E, and the rudder is fast, only to be released by raising B off the rod and dropping the rudder horizontally. In practice the split brace can be put on or off the rod by inclining the rudder to an angle of 45 degrees, without laying it horizontal. With this gear there are no detached parts, the work may all be done at the upper part of the rod, just below A, and it is not necessary to grope under water to ship the lower pintle. The rudder can only be detached by raising B from the top of the rod, and the rudder lines, when attached, prevent it rising so far of itself.

The deck tiller and gear shown have been tried in practice and found to work perfectly, the whole arrangement being very strong, while there is not the least chance for lines to foul the rudder yoke or deck yoke. The former is in the shape of a wooden wheel, 6 in. diameter and 3/8 in. thick, turned in a lathe, with a groove 3/8 in. deep around it, large enough to take the rudder lines of 3/16 in. copper wire rope. This wheel is fitted on its lower side with the usual dovetail plates, one being fastened to the deck and one to the wheel. The deck immediately beneath the wheel should be leveled, so that the wheel will bear on its entire lower surface. On the upper side of the wheel are two hasps, bent out of sheet brass and screwed fast to the wheel, in which the tiller ships. The tiller is reduced at the after end, where it fits into the after hasp, but on top of it is a spring, K, of flat spring brass, turned up at a right angle at the after end, as shown. This hook on the spring serves to hold the tiller in place, and further acts to raise the fore end of the tiller. By this means some spring is allowed in the latter, and in case of any weight being suddenly thrown on it, it will give until the hand touches the top of the hatch and will not break off. As the wheel has a bearing 6 in. long, no matter what position it is in, there is no danger of twisting off the plate. The weak point of most deck tillers is the long pin and high block on which they are mounted to enable the yoke and tiller to clear the hatch, and with such a rig breakdowns are frequent. The present rig is both strong and compact, the long grotesquely curved arms that foul sheets and halliards are absent, and, if fitted closely to the deck, no lines can foul.

On the rudder head is a similar wheel, of the same size, but with the fore side cut away as shown, so as to allow it to be placed below the level of the deck. The angle allows ample play for the rudder. In order to insure perfect action the center of the wheel must coincide exactly with the center of the pin on which the rudder is hung, then the lines will be of the same length, no matter how far over the helm may be thrown. The lines for the foot gear, also wire rope, run round the rudder wheel, being fastened at one point only, so that they cannot slip on the wheel. The two ends are led forward and down through the deck, as shown. A brass ring is securely lashed to each line near where it leaves the wheel, and a strong hook on the end of each of the short lines from the deck wheel will hook into the ring. The short lines are each provided with turnbuckles, as shown, by which they may be tightened. When the deck tiller is not needed the turnbuckles are slacked up, the short lines unhooked, and the deck wheel may be removed, leaving only the lower plate set in the deck. The rudder wheel should be set as low as possible and yet allow the lines to clear the deck; there is no need to have it, as is often seen, far up in the air. If the two wheels are anywhere near the same height there will be no possible chance for the lines to run out of the grooves; in fact, if thrown out in any way they at once spring back. Of course there is nothing to catch the mizen sheet, as the lines will keep it from getting under the wheel. With a 6 in. wheel there is power enough to turn a much larger rudder than is needed on a canoe; in fact, the wheel might be even smaller if desirable for any reason. One great advantage of a wheel over the ordinary arms is that the pull is always the same, no matter how far over the rudder may be.

The advantages of the old-fashioned leg-o'-mutton sail in the important points of light weight aloft and simplicity of rig, were so apparent that it is not surprising to find that while models and rigs were at first imported from England, the lug and gunter sails were soon discarded in America for the less complicated leg-o'-mutton which, about ten years since, was the sail in general use here by canoeists. Both the lug and gunter required some care in rigging and more blocks and gear, but the plain triangular sail of the sharpie was easily made, after a fashion, and rigged to match, by any tyro. Up to 1878 this sail was used on almost all canoes in the United States, but as racing became more popular the lug was introduced and soon drove it out. The faults of the leg-o'-mutton sail were that the mast must be very long in order to obtain the area, and the sail was difficult to hoist and lower owing to the number of mast rings required, making it a slow and uncertain matter to reef or shake out. A mast of 14 to 15 ft., such as was necessary for a 65 ft. sail, was a very troublesome stick in a narrow boat, even if of bamboo. Naturally the idea of cutting this stick in half suggested itself, leading to the sliding gunter rig, but a mechanical difficulty was met that caused the gunter sail to be abandoned by all. It was found to be impossible to rig a gear of any sort that would slide on the lower mast and carry the topmast without either binding and jamming fast, or on the other hand, being so loose when hoisted as to allow the topmast to wobble to an unbearable degree. Brass slides of various forms were tried, as well as other devices, but besides the weight aloft, they never could be relied on to hoist and lower quickly, while they permitted a great amount of play in the topmast.

The sail here shown was designed last year by Mr. C. J. Stevens, New York C. C., for the canoe Tramp, and is also fitted to the canoe shown on Plate XXX. The sail plan on Plate XXIX. shows the rig adapted to the 15 ft.x30 in. canoe on Plate XXVII. Curiously enough this new sail, a combination of the leg-o'-mutton and sliding gunter, was evolved directly from the balance lug. The first step was to sling the ordinary round-headed balance lug sail abaft the mast, of course retaining the peak, the yard being very much rounded, as shown in the sail plan of the Forest and Stream cruiser. This made a very good sail, but it was evident that the peak, falling more or less to leeward and out of the plane of the masts, was a decided disadvantage in so narrow a boat on the score of stability, whatever advantage it might possess to windward over a jib-headed sail. The next step then was to cut away entirely the angle between luff and head, the throat of the sail, substituting a moderate curve to the upper part.

The most serious difficulty was the hoisting and holding in place of the yard, now transformed into a sort of topmast; but after a number of trials a method was devised that is at once effective and ingenious. The object sought was to bind both mast and yard so firmly together that they became for the time a single stick, avoiding the play of the gunter, as well as the weak construction due to the short gunter brass with its direct strain on the masthead. The details of the present plan are shown in the smaller drawing. On the mast two cheek blocks are securely lashed, leading fore and aft. On the yard are two similar blocks, also leading fore and aft. The halliard is double; a knot is first tied in the center, then the two ends are rove, one through each of the blocks on yard and then through corresponding block on mast, the bight of the line with the knot, c, being around the fore side of mast. It is evident that a pull on the two parts of the halliard will jam the spar firmly against the mast, practically making one spar of the two, as each braces the other. The size of each is so proportioned that the strength of the 2 in. mast is retained all the way to the masthead, the yard growing larger as the mast grows smaller. The halliard was first used without the knot, c, but it was found that in hoisting the bight was held close to the mast, thus jamming at times. The knot was then tied in so that the halliard could not unreeve through either block; and now in hoisting the strain is only on one halliard until the yard is fairly in place, then both halliards are set taut and belayed. The canoeist takes both halliards in hand, leaving one with about 6 in. slack, then hoists away, the yard rising easily, as the bight is entirely loose around the mast. When well up, a pull on both halliards, a a, sets all snug. The result is the same when set at the masthead for full sail, or lower for a reef. The boom and battens are fitted with jaws of the size and shape shown in the smaller cut, which represents the full size of the pattern, the casting being a little smaller when finished. The battens are round in section, and each is ferruled with brass, the jaw then being driven in. To hold the jaw to the mast a hollow brass curtain ring is used, lashed to the batten just on top of the jaw. This allows the boom or batten to be folded close up against the mast in stowing. The fourth batten may not be needed if the sail is properly cut; in any case it has no jaw, but is merely slipped into a pocket. The halliards, A A, lead from the masthead to blocks at deck on each side of mast, thence to a cleat near the well. They may be led through a double block near the stem, thus acting as a forestay, provided the mast is not too far forward; but the present practice is to place the mast from 9 to 12 in. from stem, in some cases still closer. A tack line is used to hold the boom down, being led through a block at deck abaft the mast. The toppinglift is made fast to an eye at masthead, leading down each side of the sail, and spliced together just below the sheet block. A small jaw of brass is lashed to the boom, and the bight of the toppinglift is slipped into it, holding the boom at the proper height. By casting the lift off from this jaw and allowing it to swing forward the boom will drop on deck, and by leaving it in the jaw and hauling in, belaying on the small cleat or boom, the latter may be topped up as far as desirable. No reefing gear is shown, but any of the well-known varieties may be fitted as in a lug or Mohican sail, two reefs being sufficient.

The mizen may be rigged precisely as the mainsail, but with the small area now carried aft a sail of the same shape, but not fitted to lower, will answer perfectly. The luff is laced to the mast, one batten is fitted as shown, and a brail, in two parts, one on each side of the sail, and leading through small bullseyes lashed to the mast, the two parts spliced into one and belaying on the cleat at foot, serves to stow the sail snugly for running free or paddling. Though rather long, the mast and sail weigh but little, and may be readily unstepped and stowed on deck, a smaller mizen being substituted. The sprit mizen used on the Pearl will answer well for this latter, the spars being quite short. It is fitted as shown in the dotted lines, with one batten, there being rings on leech and head. A brail is rove through these rings in two parts, one and fast to boom and up the leech, thence through a bullseye on mast; the other end fast to top of batten, through rings on head, and through same bullseye. The sail may be reefed by hauling the latter part until the batten lies close to mast, or by a pull on both parts the sail is brailed up snugly against the mast. The spars may be short enough to allow the rig to be stowed inside the well.

The spinaker forms a most important feature of this rig, as the mizen is stowed when down wind and the spinaker set, the canoe running much steadier than under aftersail. The shape is shown in the drawing by the broken lines, the foot being greatly roached in the curve shown. The head and outer angle of sail are fitted with small swivels, in case of a turn in hoisting; the halliard leads through a block at masthead, one end leading through a block at deck, the other hooking into the sling of sheet block when not in use. If on the wrong side, it may be swung around in front of the mast before snapping to head of sail. The sheet or after guy is fast to the end, and a snap hook on the latter hooks into an eye on the end of boom. The tack leads through a screweye on deck just forward of the mast, the ends leading aft on each side of mast, so that either may be bent to the sail. The boom, of bamboo, is fitted with an eye at the outer end and a small jaw on the inner, the latter shipping in a brass stud in the deck just abaft the mast. The sail is snapped on to the halliard and hoisted, the tack being first hooked on; the outer angle is then hooked to the boom, the latter shipped against the stud on deck and swung forward, the sheet then being made fast and the tack trimmed. The sail should be of strong light linen that will dry quickly.

To complete the ordinary outfit for cruising and racing an intermediate mainsail of about two-thirds the size of largest sail is used, and sometimes a small spinaker.

The rig for a large canoe will include a racing mainsail of 90 ft., a cruising mainsail of about 50 ft., a racing mizen of 25 ft., a cruising mizen of 15 ft. and two spinakers of 60 and 45 ft. The dimensions of spars and sails for such a rig are given in the following table, the spars being much lighter than any now in use on canoes, but they are all a little larger than those carried on the Tramp, a heavy Pearl, 14x 33, for the past year; and if of good spruce and properly rigged, will be amply strong. The old Guenn carried a balance lug mainsail of 105 ft. and a mizen of 35 ft., mast 15 ft. above deck; but the present canoe, if built lightly and sailed with a moderate amount of ballast, should prove still faster under the rig shown. The weight aloft will be about one-half that of the old rig, consequently the boat can be held up with much less ballast and the crew will have far more control of her. The movement now is in the direction of smaller sails, and experience goes to show that a boat will be faster under a properly proportioned rig of moderate dimensions than under a heavy outfit of spars and canvas, that must be upheld by heavy ballast and at times with great difficulty:

			DIMENSIONS OF SPARS AND SAILS - CANOE GUENN.
					Main.					Mizen.
				Racing.		Cruising.		Racing.		Cruising.
Mast, from stem			11-1/2		11-1/2			12 00 		12 00
    deck to truck		11 00		 8 09			9 06		5 02
Boom				10 06		 8 04			5 07		5 00
Yard				10 06		 8 04			....		....
Battens   	 9 01,7 10,6 5,5 06     6 08,5 02,5 96	5 03		5 00
Spinaker boom			 8 06		 6 08			....		....
         foot			10 00		 7 11			5 03		4 08
         luff			 6 10		 5 05			9 00		4 10
         head			10 01		 8 00			....		2 00
         leech			17 06		13 10			9 04		4 0
Tack to peak			16 11		13 05			....		....
Clew to throat			10 11		 8 08			....		....
Area, square feet		90 00		55 00			25 00		15 00
Spinaker area, sq. ft		61 00		48 00			....		....
         foot			10 00		 8 00			....		....
         luff			10 03		 8 01			....		....
         leech			13 04		10 06			....		....
         round of foot	 	1 06		 1 03			....		....
Battens apart			2 03,2 04-1/2	 2 08			.... 		....

The 90 ft. sail has three battens, 55 ft. sail has two. Battens are spaced 1-1/2 in. further apart on leech than on luff.

Racing mast 2 in. at deck and up to second batten, thence tapering to 1 in. at head. Mizenmast l-3/8 in. at deck, tapering to 3/4 in. at head.

Main boom l-1/8 in. diameter for middle third of length, thence tapering to 3/4 in. at ends.

Yard 1 in. diameter for about middle third, thence tapering to 1/2 in. at ends. Battens round, 1/2 in. at fore and 3/8 in. at after ends, upper battens 3/8 in. throughout. Mizenboom 7/8 in. at middle, tapering to 1/2 in. forward and 3/8 in. aft., batten 3/8 in. Spinaker boom, bamboo, about 3/4 in. at fore and 3/8 in. at after ends. The spars for cruising rig will be a little smaller throughout. The mizenmast will fit forward tube, but will be reduced in size from deck up.

A method of leading the reeflines, devised by Mr. 0. F. Coe, of Jersey City, is shown in the following sketch.

Vertical pockets are sewn to the sail through which the lines are run, thus lessening the danger of fouling. Mr. W. Baden-Powell has used the same idea for some time, but with several small brass rings sewn in the pockets to keep them extended and so allow the lines to run freely.

The drop rudder is now in general use for cruising as well as racing and is made after several patterns by the different builders. One of the best is that shown in Plate XXIX., made by Chas. Piepenbrink, of Albany, New York. The stock is a brass tube, A, 5/8 in. external diameter, into which two side pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass, C, C, are inserted and brazed, sufficient space being left for the blade B to work freely between them. The blade, of 1/16 in. hard brass, turns on the flat-headed bolt, F, and is held more firmly by the lugs E E, riveted to each side and projecting over the side plates. The rudder yoke, D, is of cast brass, very neatly proportioned in its design, with eyes at each end for the rudder lines. It is held on the stock, A, by a set screw, I, passing through A, and in the upper end of the latter is an eye through which the lifting line, K, is rove. The rudder is hung by two braces, the lower one, H, forming a scagband and at the same time having a hole for the 3/8 in. pin in the lower end of A. The upper brace, G, is bored out to 5/8 in. diameter inside, with a slot at the back to allow the side pieces to enter. On the side of A is a small stud, I, which also passes through the slot, and when the rudder is in position prevents it from rising. Hard brass only should be used for the side plates and blade, as great stiffness is necessary.

On plate XXIX.a are shown the latest fittings used on American canoes. The upper cleat, invented by Mr. Paul Butler, is very handy for main sheet, a turn being taken under the hooked end. A somewhat smaller cleat, devised by Mr. E. H. Barney, is also shown. The cleat board introduced from the English canoes, is now generally used. It is a piece of mahogany 3 or 4 in. wide and long enough to extend across the cockpit, to which it is secured by the hook screws shown. which allow it to be shifted to any point. In this board are belaying pins, as shown, or cleats are screwed to it, and sometimes a traveler of 1/4n. wire is added. In removing the sail all lines are left on their respective cleats, the board being detached and made up with thc sail. The tiller shown was fitted to the Blanche by Mr. Butler, the ends extending across the beat so that one is within easy reach when the crew is leaning out to windward. The ordinary tiller may also be added, as shown by the dotted lines. Two varieties of lifting handles are also shown, the one devised by Mr. Barney for his 1887 canoe, Lacowsic, being of brass, set into the stem and stern of the canoe, which are cut away to receive them. The other handle, a piece of stout wire with a short length of rubber tube for the hand to grasp, is used on most of the Mohican canoes, being permanently attached one to each end. The mast and jaw shown are those of Pecowsic and Lacowsic, the tube is but 5 in. deep and the lower end of mast is fitted with a long taper ferrule to fit it very neatly. The jaw is of brass, with a socket for the boom end, and is hung by a pin through the mast, allowing the boom to be folded close against the latter. The mast turns in the socket, the boom being immovably fixed to it. The mast lacing shown is described with the sail plan of Notus, Plate XXVI.


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