Perhaps the greatest pleasure that comes to most owners of boats is not so much in actually possessing the fastest craft of all, as in the continual effort to gain that desired end by surpassing the similar efforts of others: a competition that is often more exciting and engrossing than the final test by which in a few hours the results of this labor are proved to be satisfactory or the reverse. It often happens that the development of the highest capabilities of a yacht is the work of several seasons of careful and painstaking effort, and of many changes and experiments; work that calls into play all the inventive faculties and reasoning powers, but that ultimately brings a far higher reward when success is attained than do the briefer and less intellectual struggles of the regatta course. It is from this point of view that the canoe, looked on contemptuously by many as a mere toy, and unworthy of serious notice, commends itself to a large number of intelligent men as a fitting subject for their study. Where the first cost of a yacht may range from ten to thirty thousand dollars. and the cost of any changes are in proportion, there are comparatively few who are able to follow the sport to its fullest extent; but in the canoe, while the cost of boat, outfit, and a season's racing will not exceed two or three hundred dollars, the interest is no less intense, the competition is as keen, and the rewards are great in proportion. In no other sailboat, perhaps, is there so much room for ingenuity and invention. The small size of the boat and the amount of work her crew of one must do make it necessary that everything should be arranged to the best advantage, while the strong competition between the various craft, both in home and distant races, is a constant stimulus toward improvement in model, rig and fittings. Every one familiar with the leading canoes will recognize the fact that each testifies not only to her owner's skill as a sailor but also as a designer, rigger and inventor, and that each boat, while all are alike to the casual observer, possesses a marked individuality of its own.

From this point of view no less than from the prominence which be has lately attained, the canoeing experience of Mr. E. H. Barney of the Springfield C. C., is a most interesting and instructive one. Taking up canoeing as a novice, at an age when most men have given up such sports, be has in less than three years won a most enviable place among the leaders of the sport. Mr. Barney began his canoeing early in 1884 with a lateen rigged canoe of good model and fitted in the best style of the leading builders; but a short trial served to show many points that were capable of improvement. The rudder, fitted in the usual manner, was not perfect by any means and soon gave place to an original method of his own that is no less admirable for its effectiveness than for its simplicity and mechanical perfection. With this came a new deck tiller, a rudder yoke that could not foul the mizzen sheet, the "fishtail" rudder and many smaller details. A little experience brought changes in sails, rigging and centerboard, until this novice was soon looked upon as one of the leaders in the field of canoe inventions. His first boat was soon discarded for a better, and this in turn made way for a third, until the fifth, the well-known Pecowsic, was purchased last year.

Three of these canoes have borne the name Pecowsic, the one here illustrated being the third; and this, like its predecessor, was built for Mr. Barney by F. Joyner, of Glens Falls, N.Y. The model was made by the builder to Mr. Barney's order, and the method of construction, the smooth-skin lap, is the same as Mr. Joyner has employed so successfully for some time. The general arrangements, the positions of masts, boards, etc., as well as the entire rig, were planned by Mr. Barney. The accompanying lines were very carefully taken from a small drawing, and the full-sized outlines of the moulds, furnished by Mr. Joyner; but some fairing was necessary to put the drawing in its present shape. The midship section shows far less deadrise than an inspection of the boat itself would indicate, the cutting away of the ends giving an idea of a sharp V section, quite different from what the drawing shows. The bulk of the hull is small, and its internal capacity limited, though it is claimed that there is ample room for cruising outfit, and that the boat is well adapted for general work. There is but one bulkhead just abaft the well, closed with one of Joyner's circular hatches. The fore end of the boat is entirely open, to permit of the stowage of spars and sails. The board is a sheet of thin brass only 30 in. long but rising high above the top of the low trunk, shown by the dotted lines in the sheer plan; before the Meet of 1886 the board was shifted 10 in. forward of the position shown. The well is short and far aft, while the trunk interferes with the room, and sleeping is difficult if not absolutely impossible. As no ballast is carried and there is little weight of metal, the danger of sinking if filled is removed, especially as one air tank is carried in the after end. The weight of the hull, about 100lbs., is nearly all made up of wood. The dimensions are as follows:

Length, extreme					15 ft.   l0-1/2 in.
	  l.w.l					15 ft. 	 6 in.
Beam, extreme						28-3/4 in.
  l.w.l                            			27-1/2 in.
Depth, amidship						 9-1/2 in.
Sheer, bow					 	 8 in.
 stern                             			 5-1/2 in.
Draft							 6-1/4 in.
Crown of deck						24 in.
Well, width						17  in.
      length					 5 ft.  1/2 in.
Foreside of stem to foremast				7  in.
  		    mainmast        		 6 ft. 	6-1/2 in.
  		    mizzenmast      		13 ft. 4  in.
  		    well, fore end  		 6 ft. 10-1/2 in.
  		    well, after end 		12 ft.
 		    bulkhead        		12 ft.
  		    centerb'd trunk, fore end	 6 ft. 7 in.
 		    centerb'd trunk, after end	 9 ft. 1 in.

The first station is 2 ft. from stem, the others are each 18 in. apart. The waterlines are 2-1/4 in. apart.

The most peculiar feature of the boat is her rig, differing as it does from anything else in canoeing. The advantages of the simple leg o' mutton sail were too apparent not to be quickly seized upon by canoeists, but a difficulty was experienced in obtaining sufficient area; besides which the sail is hard to hoist in such small sizes, the mast rings having no weight and being liable to jam very frequently. After being used for some years the sail was abandoned; but after trying the others in turn, Mr. Barney was attracted by the simplicity and efficiency of the leg o' mutton sail, especially for an unballasted boat of narrow beam, and began to experiment with it, making his own sails. To overcome the first objection, be added a third sail, thus making up the area; while it was well distributed over the length of the boat, and at the same time the center of effort is kept low, an important point in such a craft. The second difficulty, that of handling, was disposed of by lacing each sail to its mast and not attempting to hoist or lower it, the mast and all being removed and a smaller substituted if reefing was required. To do this successfully, five sails are carried, the masts and tubes being all of one size. Three of the sails must be set at once, the other two being stowed below. It would seem that not only is this shifting a matter of difficulty in many cases, but that the sails below would be a serious incumbrance in so small a boat, but those who have used her state to the contrary.

The sails and spars are as follows:

   Mast.			Boom.		Battens, No. of.		Area.

No. 1, 8 ft.			5 ft. 10 in.		1			22 sq. ft.
No. 2, 10 ft.			5 ft. 10 in.		2			28 sq. ft.
No. 3, 10 ft.			5 ft. 10 in.		2			33 sq. ft.
No. 4, 10 ft.			5 ft. 10 in.		2			38 sq. ft.
No. 5, 11 ft.8 in.		5 ft. 10 in.		3			42 sq. ft.

The sails shown in Plate XXIII. are Nos. 5, 4 and 2, No. 1 being indicated by the dotted lines, while No. 3 is similar to No. 4, but smaller. The greatest possible area is 113 ft., the least 22 ft. The booms are limited in length by the distance between main and foremasts, and the first batten in each sail, except No. 3, is to gain more area. The other battens were added to make the sails sit properly, as they bagged in places. Mr. Barney has used very light spars, the masts being slender sticks with a quick taper, and so having little weight aloft. The booms are fitted with brass jaws (Plate XXIX. a), allowing them to top up easily. The sails are fastened to the spars by small wire staples, such as are used for blind slats. No lines of any kind are used except the sheets, and the extreme limit of lightness and simplicity is reached. Since Pecowsic's success in 1886, a number of similar craft have appeared in the races; some of them much fairer in model than the lines here shown, though all by the same builder. None, however, have equalled the record of Mr. Barney's boat, which is good evidence that the reason for Pecowsic's speed, which has puzzled so many canoeists, is to be found not so much in her model, as in the skill and care with which she is rigged, fitted up and handled. In 1887 Pecowsic was sailed by Mr. Geo. M. Barney, son of her owner, the latter using a new canoe of similar model, but rockered up much more aft, named Lacowsic. She was 15 ft. 10 in.x27-1/2 in., built at Springfield under Mr. Barney's supervision, with a double skin. The sails were identical with Pecowsic's. Both of these canoes made an excellent showing in the season of 1887.


The utility of some ballast and of boats built to carry it is generally admitted when open-water sailing is in question, but there are some locations where a totally different type of boat has come into use, and has found great favor at the expense of the heavier-ballasted craft. This has been the case particularly at Albany, where canoeing is confined to the Hudson River, with occasional excursions to neighboring streams of a similar character. The boats first used by the Mohican C. C. were of the Shadow and similar models as built a few years since, but for some years the club has displayed great activity in the hunt for improvement, and besides the sail and fittings generally known by their name, they have devoted much attention to the question of model. Vesper was designed by Mr. R. W. Gibson in 1885-6, and built by Mr. J. H. Rushton, the hull being lapstrake and very lightly built.

The table of offsets is as follows:

Offsets for canoe "Vesper"
StationsHeightsHalf Breadths
DeckRab'tDeck10 in.6½ in. 4½ in.2½ in.1 in.KeelDiag. a.b.c.
0184001.... .... ............0101
11504615546 412710455
212402105102 9826745196
3110134133123 1151028312126
4102....1515144141 1311314147
X10....152152152 1514212614157
6102....146146 1431371310713 141
711301123122 114104865711 114
8132027571 653313076
9160402............ ........0202
Foreside stem
from station 0
0001 347114........

The dimensions are:

Length over all			15 ft. 	6-3/4 in.
Beam, extreme				30-1/2 in.
	l.w.l				30 in.
Draft, excluding keelson		4-1/2 in.
	 including keelson		5  in.
Freeboard, bow 				14  in.
	     amidships 			5-1/2 in.
	     stern 			11-1/2 in.
Sheer, bow				8-1/2 in.
	stern				6 in.
Rake, sternpost				2 in.
Crown of deck				2 in.

Diameter of mast tubes	1-3/4 in.,1-7/8 in. tapered to about 1 in.

The rig shown in Plate XXIII., has the ordinary Mohican sails, rigged as shown in detail in Plate XVII.


After a season's use of Vesper, Mr. Gibson sold her and made a new design embodying some improvements, and in 1887 Notus was built. She is a 16x30 canoe, much like Vesper, her 6 in. waterline being the same; but she is cut away more under water forward, giving a slightly hollow entrance, to improve her performance in rough water. The same long, fine bow and full stern already tested by Mr. Gibson have been retained, but the extremely broad and long floor is modified. Notus having about 10 in. flat and an elliptical form of midship section, leading into the turn of the bilge, which gives remarkable strength. The stability is not perceptibly diminished by this slight rounding, and it probably assists turning, which Notus does with the greatest ease. The canoe was built by Charles Piepenbrink, of Albany, under Mr. Gibson's personal supervision, and is a remarkably fine piece of work. She is a smoothskin, with only three planks to a side, the ribs spaced 6 in. and fastened with brass screws from the inside. A few screws were required from the outside, but they are 12 in. apart, leaving the bottom absolutely smooth. The planking and decks are of white pine, and the trimmings of maple and mahogany, two narrow beads along each side. The board is of sheet brass, 30x13x1/16 in., dropping through a low trunk. There are four bulkheads, with a low hatch in the fore deck.

The table of offsets is as follows:

Offsets for Canoe "Notus"
RabbetDeckDeck8 in.6 in.4 in.2 in.Keel
0....180101 ................
1115537252 130602
2031437753 43321704
3021279782 7533207
4011611710593 765111
50107134125115 977214
60103143137131 1169214
7010146145142 13110714
8010147147146 1371214
X0101515147141 12314
100101147147146 13712114
110102144143141 13111214
120106134132126 1159413
1301114114111 10493711
14021258377 7362421
150614243435 261504
16....16010101 010101

The dimensions of Notus are:

Length over all				16 ft.
Beam          					30 in.
Depth						10 in.
Sheer at bow 					8 in.
	at stern 				9 in.
Fore side of stem to bulkheads, 2 ft. 6 in., 5 ft., 10 ft. 6 in., 13 ft. 6 in.
		 mainmast	 	   	9 in.
Fore side of stem to mizenmast	    	11 ft.  10 in.
   	board, fore end			 5 ft.   8 in.
   	after end			 8 ft.   2 in.
   	coaming, fore end	 	 4 ft.   3 in.
	after end			11 ft.   6 in.

The sails were devised by Mr. Gibson, and are made of bleached muslin in one width, the edges being bound with wide tape. The battens fit in pockets in the usual manner. The spars are very light, the masts 2 in. square at deck, tapering to 3/4 in. diameter at head, the main boom 1-1/8 in. diameter, battens 1/2 in. thick. The dimensions of sails and spars are:

					Main.			Mizen.
Mast, deck to head			13 ft. 9 in. 		11 ft. 4 in.
Sail, on foot				9 ft. 			 6 ft. 9 in.
	along first batten		8 ft. 8 in.		 6 ft. 6 in.
	along second batten		8 ft.
	luff				13 ft.			10 ft. 6 in.
	leech, total			14 ft. 7 in.		11 ft. 8 in.
	leech, above batten		10 ft. 3 in.		 9 ft. 6 in.
	spacing of battens, fore end, 	 1 ft. 11 in. 		 1 ft. 11 in.
			   after end, 	2 ft.l-1/2 in. 		 2 ft. 1-1/2 in.
	area, square feet		69 ft.			39 ft.

The first reef leaves 52 ft. in main and 26 ft. in mizen, the second reef leaves 35 ft. in main. The mizen can be stepped forward and a storm mizen added. The luff of the mainsail is roached 4 in. in 13 ft. and the luff of the mizen in the same proportion. The usual reef gear is added. The sails are hoisted by halliards and lowered with downhauls. the attachment to the mast being by a lacing, as shown. This lacing (Plate XXIX. a) is similar to the ordinary hammock or netting stitch, the loop or mesh loosening as soon as the halliard is cast off, but as the latter is hauled taut the meshes lengthen and draw the luff closely to the mast. It has been suggested that a few small beads on the lacing near each knot would make the sail run easier in hoisting and lowering. In the fall of 1887 Notus was sold to Mr. R. W. Bailey, Pittsburgh C. C.

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